St. Petersburg - Hermitage Museum - General Staff Building - The Impressionism Exhibition

JUL 03,2015 - JUL 03,2015 (1 DAYS)

Russian Federation

0 DAYS

Museums

St. Petersburg - - Hermitage Museum - General Staff Building - The Impressionism Exposition:

Duration: 1/2 day.

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View of the General Staff Building from the Palace Square (Dvortsovaya Square):

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The General Staff Building (Zdanie Glavnovo Shtaba, Здание Главного штаба), (6-10 Dvortsovaya Embankment), is an edifice with a 580 m. long bow-shaped facade, situated OPPOSITE the Winter Palace. It is a grandiose monument in the Empire style, erected in the course of the reconstruction of the Palace Square in 1819-29 (designed by Carlo Rossi), in commemoration of Russia's victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 and the campaigns of 1813-14 against Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. The building complex included the construction of two wings which are separated by a triumphal arch adorned (decoration forming compositions of arms and armour) by sculptors Stepan Pimenov and Vasily Demuth-Malinovskyof. The construction of the Triumphal Arch, connecting both parts of the building was completed in 1829. The arch links Palace Square through Bolshaya Morskaya St. to Nevsky Prospekt and it also commemorates the Russian triumphs against Napoleon. The Triumphal Arch is crowned by the Chariot of Glory - from the (southern side) Palace Square side.

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The homogeneity of the main elements of the General Staff building and the Winter Palace creates the impression of integrity of the Palace Square ensemble. The majestic Triumphal Arch forms a symmetrical axe with the central part of the Winter Palace.

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Until the capital was transferred to Moscow in 1918, the building served as the headquarters of the General Staff (western wing), Foreign Ministry and Finance Ministry (eastern wing). Since 1993, the Hermitage has had control of both wings of the building, and uses them to display a variety of permanent exhibitions of applied art connected to the history of the building, completed at the height of the Russian Empire, soon after Russia's victory against Napoleon.

Three halls on the second floor of the building, running along the northern facade (the Palace Square side), house a permanent exhibition, The Art of Modern. It features art works created by Western European (mostly, French) and Russian artists in late 19th – early 20th century: garments, lacework, articles made of porcelain, ceramics and glass. Nearby rooms in the former ministerial block of the General Staff Building accommodate an exposition devoted to the History of the Ministry of Finance. From 1830 to 1918, the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Empire, Provisional Government and the Russian Soviet  Republic was headquartered here. The complex of ministerial premises included Office of the Minister of Finance with Chamber, Library and Credit Chancellery Office.

Several large halls on the third floor are devoted to the Russian painting of the 19th – early 20th century. Art works by such artists as K.P. Bryullov, A.A. Ivanov, V.A. Tropinin, K.S. Petrov-Vodkin, B.M. Kustodiev, I.N. Kramskoy, V.E. Makovsky enable us to trace the development of the Russian school of painting.

A part of the Russian Guards Museum’s collection, Russian Guards in the 18th century, will be shown in halls on the third floor of the General Staff Building, facing the Moika River Embankment. Visitors will have an opportunity to see uniforms, weaponry, combat banners and colours, as well as gifts – valuable regalia, preserved by Russian officers’ descendants and returned to Russia after staying abroad for a long time.

A permanent exhibition Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia: St. Petersburg’s Era 1802-1917 is placed nearby; it details the history of the Russian Foreign Ministry starting from the date of its foundation by Emperor Alexander the First to 1917, featuring paintings and graphics, photographs, historical relics and pieces of decorative and applied arts.

An exhibition entitled 'Realms of the Eagle' compares French and Russian decorative art and costume in the Imperial Age, contrasting the cultural influences of Napoleon and Alexander I. Housed in the former offices of the General Staff, - the halls, designed by the great Russian architect of the first quarter of the 19th century, K.I. Rossi, and painted by P.I. Scotti. The collection is not particularly rich, but has a clear and cleverly presented concept, exploring the different ways these two empires chose to represent themselves.

The halls devoted to Carl Fabergé are one of the most fascinating parts of the new museum complex. They demonstrate the heritage of the firm, founded by renowned Carl Fabergé, as well as further developments and achievements of contemporary jewellery and stone-cutting art.

From 7 December 2014, when the State Hermitage Museum celebrated its 250th anniversary - the permanent exhibition Modern European Art is held in the eastern wing in the fourth floor, the Memorial Gallery devoted to S.I. Shchukin and the Morozov brothers. The Hermitage's superb collection of Modern European Art, the bulk of which is made up of French impressionist and post-impressionist painting, is divided between those works that were received into the Hermitage collections after the Revolution, and art seized from Germany after World War II. The former are displayed on the museum's fourth floor, and include some of the world's largest collections of works by Picasso and Matisse. But, far more Impressionists' masterpieces are included in the 4th floor extensive collection: Renoir, Monet, Cezanne, Pissarro, Van Gogh, Gaugin and many others.

The new exposition is unique in the way that for the first time, the Hermitage collection of the 19th-20th century French painting is demonstrated in full, without dividing artworks based on the principle of receipt. The Gallery opens with Claude Monet’s hall featuring fourteen paintings by the artist; then the theme of Impressionism is continued in Edgar Degas’ hall with his Place de la Concorde, a room with still-life paintings by Henri Fantin-Latour, a hall of landscape paintings by Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley. The next two halls hold an exceptionally rich collection of art works by Auguste Renoir. Further, works of art by Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin are demonstrated, followed by Les Nabis painters’ halls. After 10 years, canvas by Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis returned back to the General Staff Building.

The fourth floor exhibition ends with a small collection of pre-Revolutionary Russian modern art, including canvases by Vasiliy Kandinskiy and Kazimir Maleevich - the most and significant names of the Russian avant-garde. Now they have only one hall with Kandinsky and other avant-gardes - but soon there will be much more rooms.

The modern Art exposition is NOT easy to find and NOT really well advertised - so hurry up, before this building will be flooded by thousands of visitors every day. It is an astonishing experience. it's far of being jam-packed like the Hermitage. We went to the Impressionist era exhibition in July, a regular weekday, at 14.00. It is right the middle of the school holidays (busiest time at the museums in Russia) and there were hardly more than 10 visitors in the whole floor. It is unbelievable how the Hermitage emerged as one of the leading museums in the world of Modern Art - as well. It is amazing the taking photographs is FREE and how close you can get to the paintings.

Temporary Exhibitions: wonderful expositions of: Tibetan Art, Finnish Modern Architecture etc' are held during the period from NOV 2015 to Spring 2016 in the General Staff Buildings.

Prices: Separate ticket - 300 RUB. Free - for students (country does not matter). Combined tickets: The Main Museum Complex and its branches:
the General Staff Building, the Winter Palace of Peter the Great,
the Menshikov Palace, the Museum of the Imperial Porcelain Factory - 600 RUB (valid for two consecutive days). FREE admission for all visitors: The first Thursday of every month.

Opening hours: Tuesday, Thursday, , Friday, Saturday, Sunday: 10.30 - 18.00, Wednesday 10.30 - 21.00. Closed: Mondays, as well as January 1 and May 9.

Getting there: Metro: Admiralteyskaya:

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Practicalities: The small cafe' or restaurant is out of the cashiers and security control mechanisms. So, you CANNOT eat or rest and return to the expositions in the floors above.

Free photos-shooting.

Head straight up in the lift to the fourth floor and enjoy!

Now, your best advice: buy the combined (one-day or two-days) ticket in the General Staff Building. Start your day in the Modern European Art exhibition and continue to the Winter Palace OR rush, with your ticket to the Hermitage Main Complex entrance - skipping the l-on-g queues there !!!!

Exterior: The building itself is awesome and a real treat because it's so brilliant and modern in comparison to the Hermitage. The inner yards have been covered with glass roofs. Magnificent modern staircases have been installed inside. These modern aspects work extremely well with the historic building, the historical interiors (that are well preserved) and the fabulous pieces of art that are exhibited. The whole blend - IS SPECTACULAR !

The first atrium in the new wing of the Hermitage Museum:

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Another sensation you cannot miss - a moving exposition of a Roman Mosaic found in Lod, Israel. Breathtaking ! :

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Impressionism - Shchukin Gallery - 4th Floor:

Matisse Room: Two Russian art collectors stood out at the beginning of the 20th century: the cloth merchant Sergei Shchukin (1854–1936) and the textile manufacturer Ivan Morozov (1871–1921). Both acquired modern French art, developed a sensibility for spotting new trends, and publicized them in Russia. In 1906 Sergei Shchukin met the young artist Henri Matisse, and became one of Matisse's main patrons, acquiring 37 of his best paintings over an 8-year period. Shchukin also commissioned several large-scale pictures from him that would later acquire worldwide fame. In order to come to terms with these huge canvases and their radical simplicity, Shchukin shut himself away alone with them in his palatial house for several weeks. Many of his visitors reacted with bafflement to these latest purchases. Shchukin jokingly remarked, “A madman painted it and a madman bought it.” Shchukin and Matisse would develop more than just a commercial relationship. With Shchukin’s support and backing, Matisse was free to strive toward even greater artistic challenges. Henri Matisse’s (1869–1954) early years were spent in northern France where his middle-class family owned a general store. Although he studied in Paris to be a lawyer, in 1890, while confined to his bed for nearly a year after an operation, he chose drawing as a pastime. When he recovered, he decided that painting would be his career. At first Matisse followed in the footsteps of the Impressionists, but he soon abandoned their more delicate palette and established his characteristic style, with its flat, brilliant color and fluid line, a style that came to be known as Fauvism. Like many avant-garde artists in Paris, Matisse was receptive to a broad range of influences. He was one of the first painters to take an interest in non-European art, studying Persian miniatures, Japanese prints, and African sculptures, but a visit to Moscow where he saw early icon painting seemed to hold special importance to him. He once commented, “What interests me most is neither still life nor landscape but the human figure. It is through it that I best succeed in expressing the nearly religious feeling that I have toward life.”. Matisse traveled widely in the early 1900s when tourism was still a new idea. Brought on by railroad, steamships, and other forms of transportation that appeared during the industrial revolution, travel became a popular pursuit. As a cultured tourist, he developed his art with regular doses of travel and in 1911 visited his patron Shchukin’s collection in Moscow. During the trip Matisse encountered Russian icons. This would have a tremendous impact on his future work. Matisse is known to have said, “I spent 10 years searching for what your artists already discovered in the 14th century. It is not you who need to come to us to study, but it is we who need to learn from you.”. As we can see from Girl with Tulips, which was completed a year before his visit to Moscow, by 1910 Matisse was already working with luminous color and simplified forms. The model for the painting is Jeanne Vaderin, or Jeannette, as Matisse called her. She was the subject of several of his paintings, drawings, and sculptures. Matisse arrived in Moscow on October 23, 1911. The next day, he visited the Tretyakov Gallery and asked to be shown their collection of Russian icons. Matisse was delighted by the icons and declared that to see them was more than worth the arduous trip. Matisse spent much of his time in Moscow frantically visiting monasteries, churches, convents, and collections of sacred images. Excited by what he saw, he shared it with all who came to interview him during his stay in Moscow. “They are really great art,” Matisse excitedly told an interviewer. “I am in love with their moving simplicity.… In these icons the soul of the artist who painted them opens out like a mystical flower. And from them we ought to learn how to understand art.”:

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Matisse - Ballerina:

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Matisse - Family Portrait:

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Matisse - Fruits, Flowers, the Dance:

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Matisse - Conversation:

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Matisse - Harmony in Red:

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Jean Joveneau. - Still Life with a Mirror, 1912:

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Marie Laurencin, Artemis,1908:

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It was through Matisse that Shchukin got to know Pablo Picasso, who became the final master in his collection. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Shchukin owned the largest collection of Picassos in the world. 51 pictures covered the walls of an entire room, right up to the ceiling. The Picasso collection covers his most popular early periods, and includes Sisters, from the painter's Blue Period, and several cubist masterpieces including Three Women (1908) and a stunning Still Life of 1913:

Picasso - Absinthe Drinker, 1901:

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Picasso - Nude, 1909:

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Picasso - Woman Playing Mandoline, 1909:

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Picasso - Violin and Guitar, 1913:

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Picasso - Bust of a Nude, 1907:

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Picasso - Dance with Veils, 1907:

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Picasso - Friendship, 1908:

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Picasso - Woman with a Fan, 1908:

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Picasso - Three Women, 1908:

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Maurice de Vlaminck - View of a Small Town,1913:

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Andre Derain - Harbor in Provence. André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter and sculptor. He attended painting classes under Eugène Carrière, and there met Matisse. In 1900, he met and shared a studio with Maurice de Vlaminck (see picture above) and began to paint his first landscapes. His studies were interrupted from 1901 to 1904 when he was conscripted into the French army. Following his release from service, Matisse persuaded Derain's parents to allow him to abandon his engineering career and devote himself solely to painting. Derain and Matisse worked together through the summer of 1905 in the Mediterranean village of Collioure and later that year displayed their highly innovative paintings at the Salon d'Automne. The vivid, unnatural colors led the critic Louis Vauxcelles to title their works as les Fauves, or "the wild beasts", marking the start of the Fauvist movement. In March 1906, the noted art dealer Ambroise Vollard sent Derain to London to compose a series of paintings with the city as subject. In 30 paintings (29 of which are still existing), Derain put forth a portrait of London that was radically different from anything done by previous painters. These London paintings remain among his most popular work. In 1907 art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler purchased Derain's entire studio, granting Derain financial stability. He moved to Montmartre to be near his friend Pablo Picasso and other noted artists. At Montmartre, Derain began to shift from the brilliant Fauvist palette to more muted tones, showing the influence of Cubism and Paul Cézanne. Derain supplied woodcuts in primitivist style for an edition of Guillaume Apollinaire's first book of prose, L'enchanteur pourrissant (1909). He displayed works at the Neue Künstlervereinigung in Munich in 1910, in 1912 at the secessionist Der Blaue Reiter and in 1913 at the seminal Armory Show in New York. He also illustrated a collection of poems by Max Jacob in 1912. At about this time Derain's work began overtly reflecting his study of the Old Masters. The role of color was reduced and forms became austere; the years 1911–1914 are sometimes referred to as his Gothic period. In 1914 he was mobilized for military service in World War I and until his release in 1919 he would have little time for painting, although in 1916 he provided a set of illustrations for André Breton's first book, Mont de Piete. After the war, Derain won new acclaim as a leader of the renewed classicism then ascendant. With the wildness of his Fauve years far behind, he was admired as an upholder of tradition. In 1919 he designed the ballet La Boutique fantasque for Diaghilev, leader of the Ballets Russes. A major success, it would lead to his creating many ballet designs.The 1920s marked the height of his success, as he was awarded the Carnegie Prize in 1928 and began to exhibit extensively abroad—in London, Berlin, Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, New York City and Cincinnati, Ohio. During the German occupation of France in World War II, Derain lived primarily in Paris and was much courted by the Germans because he represented the prestige of French culture. Derain accepted an invitation to make an official visit to Germany in 1941, traveling with other French artists to Berlin to attend an exhibition by Nazi sculptor Arno Breker. The Nazi propaganda machine naturally made much of Derain's presence in Germany, and after the Liberation he was branded a collaborator and ostracized by many former supporters.A year before his death, he contracted an eye infection from which he never fully recovered. He died in France in 1954 when he was struck by a moving vehicle:

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Renoir - Ball at the Moulin de la Gallette, 1879: (many more Renoir pictures - see at the Morozov Gallery, see below).

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Impressionism - Morozov Brothers Gallery - 4th Floor:

Claude Monet - Garden, 1873. Claude Monet was a famous French painter whose work gave a name to the art movement Impressionism, which was concerned with capturing light and natural forms:

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Degas - Place de Concord, 1876:

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Edouard Manet - Mme. Isabelle, 1879. Édouard Manet, 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a key figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism:

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Jean Jacques Henner - Woman in Red - 1890. THIS IS A STRIKING PICTURE. Jean-Jacques Henner, 15 March 1829 – 23 July 1905, was noted  in painting nudes, religious subjects, and portraits. Henner was born at Alsace. He began his studies in art as a pupil of Michel-Martin Drolling and François-Édouard Picot. In 1848, he entered the École des Beaux Arts in Paris, and took the Prix de Rome with a painting of Adam and Eve finding the Body of Abel in 1858. He first exhibited Bather Asleep at the Salon in 1863 and subsequently contributed Chaste Susanna (1865), now in the Musée d'Orsay. The Levite of the Tribe of Ephraim (1898) was awarded a first-class medal. Henner also took a Grand Prix for painting at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900. He was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1873, Officer in 1878, and Commander in 1889. In 1889, he succeeded Cabanel in the Institut de France. Henner died at age 76 in Paris:

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Henri Fantin Latour - Still Life - 1865. Best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers:

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Alfred Sisley - La Garenne - 1872. Alfred Sisley, 30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899, was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship. He was the most consistent of the Impressionists in his dedication to painting landscape outdoors. He deviated into figure painting only rarely and, unlike Renoir and Pissarro, found that Impressionism fulfilled his artistic needs. Over the years Sisley's power of expression and color intensity increased. Among his important works are a series of paintings of the River Thames, mostly around Hampton Court, executed in 1874, and landscapes depicting places in or near Moret-sur-Loing. The notable paintings of the Seine and its bridges in the former suburbs of Paris are like many of his landscapes, characterized by tranquility, in pale shades of green, pink, purple, dusty blue and cream:

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Camille Pissarro - Fair in Dieppe - 1901. Camille Pissarro, 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903, was a Danish-French Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. He later studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin:

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Camille Pissarro - Boulvard Montmartre - 1897:

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Camille Pissarro - Place du Theatre, Paris - 1898:

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Now we arrive to a long and impressive series of pictures by Auguste Renoir. Auguste Renoir, 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919, was a  leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. A painter of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality. His early works were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women. As a young boy, he worked in a porcelain factory. His drawing skills were early recognized, and he was soon employed to create designs on the fine china. He also painted decorations on fans before beginning art school . He moved to Paris in 1862 to study art, where he met Frederic Bazille, Claude Monet, and Alfred Sisley, all great impressionist painters. By 1864, he was exhibiting works at the Paris Salon, but his works went largely unnoticed for the next ten years, mostly in part to the disorder caused by the Franco-Prussian War. Later, during the Paris Commune on 1871, Renoir was painting on the banks of the Seine River, when he was approached by a number of members from the commune, who thought he was a spy. They threatened to throw in into the rive, but he was saved by the leader of the commune, Raoul Rigault, whom he had protected on an earlier occasion. He experienced his first artistic success in 1874, at the first Impressionist Exhibition, and later in London of the same year. In 1881, Renoir began his world travels, voyaging to Italy to see the works of the Renaissance masters, and later to Algeria, following in the footsteps of Eugene Delacroix. It was in Algeria where he encountered a serious bout with pneumonia, leaving him bed ridden for six weeks, and permanently damaging his respiratory system. In the later years of his life, not even severe rheumatoid arthritis, which left him confined to a wheelchair and limited his movement, could deter Renoir from painting. His arthritis eventually got so bad as to leave a permanent physical deformity of his hands and shoulder, which required him to change his painting technique to adapt to his physical limitations. Before his death in 1919, Renoir traveled to the Louvre to see his paintings hanging in the museum alongside the masterpieces of the great masters. He was a prolific artist, created several thousands artworks in his lifetime, and include some of the most well-known paintings in the art world:

Auguste Renoir - A Young Woman with a Fan - 1880:

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 Auguste Renoir - Lady in Black - 1876:

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Auguste Renoir - Lady on Stairs - 1876:

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Auguste Renoir - Actress Jeanne Samary - 1878:

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Auguste Renoir - Girl Arranging Her Hair - 1887:

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Auguste Renoir - Girl with a Whip - 1885:

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Auguste Renoir - Girl with a Hat - 1872:

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Auguste Renoir - In the Garden - 1885:

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French artist Paul Signac was born in Paris on November 11, 1863. He began his artistic career in 1880 after viewing an exhibition of Monet's work. A friendship with Neo-Impressionist painter Georges Seurat led him to adopt the new Divisionist style in such works as "The Dining Room," "Women at the Well" and many seascapes of the French coast. Signac was committed to anarchist politics and was a mentor to younger avant-garde artists, including Henri Matisse. He died in Paris on August 15, 1935.

Paul Signac - Port of Marseille - 1906-7:

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Paul Cézanne, 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906, was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all.":

Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) - Girl at the Piano - 1869:

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Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) - The Pool - 1876:

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Paul Cézanne - Bathers - 1890-1:

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Paul Cézanne - Smoker - 1890-2:

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Paul Cézanne - Lady in Blue - 1900:

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Paul Gauguin, 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903, was a French Post-Impressionist artist who was not well appreciated until after his death. Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. His work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Paul Gauguin is one of the most significant French artists to be initially schooled in Impressionism, but who broke away from its fascination with the everyday world to pioneer a new style of painting broadly referred to as Symbolism. As the Impressionist movement was culminating in the late 1880s, Gauguin experimented with new color theories and semi-decorative approaches to painting. He famously worked one summer in an intensely colorful style alongside Vincent Van Gogh in the south of France, before turning his back entirely on Western society. He had already abandoned a former life as a stockbroker by the time he began traveling regularly to the south Pacific in the early 1890s, where he developed a new style that married everyday observation with mystical symbolism, a style strongly influenced by the popular, so-called "primitive" arts of Africa, Asia, and French Polynesia. Gauguin's rejection of his European family, society, and the Paris art world for a life apart, in the land of the "Other," has come to serve as a romantic example of the artist-as-wandering-mystic. After mastering Impressionist methods for depicting the optical experience of nature, Gauguin studied religious communities in rural Brittany and various landscapes in the Caribbean, while also educating himself in the latest French ideas on the subject of painting and color theory (the latter much influenced by recent scientific study into the various, unstable processes of visual perception). This background contributed to Gauguin's gradual development of a new kind of "synthetic" painting, one that functions as a symbolic, rather than a merely documentary, or mirror-like, reflection of reality.
Seeking the kind of direct relationship to the natural world that he witnessed in various communities of French Polynesia and other non-western cultures, Gauguin treated his painting as a philosophical meditation on the ultimate meaning of human existence, as well as the possibility of religious fulfillment and answers on how to live closer to nature. Gauguin was one of the key participants during the last decades of the 19th century in a European cultural movement that has since come to be referred to as Primitivism. The term denotes the Western fascination for less industrially-developed cultures, and the romantic notion that non-Western people might be more genuinely spiritual, or closer in touch with elemental forces of the cosmos, than their comparatively "artificial" European and American counterparts:

Paul Gauguin - Conversation - 1891:

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Paul Gauguin - Pastoral Tahiti - 1892:

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Paul Gauguin - Two Sisters - 1892:

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Paul Gauguin - Woman Holding a Fruit - 1893:

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Paul Gauguin - Canoe - 1896:

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Paul Gauguin - Still Life with Sunflowers on an Armchair -1901:

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Vincent van Gogh, 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890, was a Post-Impressionist painter. He was a Dutch artist whose work had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. Van Gogh painted portraits, self portraits, landscapes and still lives of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers. He drew as a child but did not paint until his late twenties.Many of his best-known works were completed during the last two years of his life. In just over a decade, he produced more than 2,100 artworks, including 860 oil paintings and more than 1,300 watercolors, drawings, sketches and prints:

Van Gogh - Landscape - 1889:

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Van Gogh - Madame Trabuc - 1889:

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Van Gogh - Arena at the Arles - 1888:

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Van Gogh - Lilac Bush - 1889:

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Édouard Vuillard - Madame Vuillard by the Fireplace - 1899-1900:

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Édouard Vuillard - In the Room - 1900:

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Édouard Vuillard - Children in the Room - 1909:

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Maurice Denis, November 25, 1870 – November 13, 1943, was a French painter and writer, and a member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. His theories contributed to the foundations of cubism, fauvism, and abstract art:

Maurice Denis - Bacchus and Ariadne - 1907:

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Pierre Bonnard, 3 October 1867 – 23 January 1947, was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, and his paintings are often characterized by a dreamlike quality. The intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny. His compositions rely less on traditional modes of pictorial structure than poetic allusions and visual wit. Regarded as a late practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color and his complex imagery:

Pierre Bonnard - Early Spring - 1909:

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Pierre Bonnard - Morning in Paris - 1911:

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Pierre Bonnard - Evening in Paris - 1911:

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==============================================================

Floor 2 - The Art of Modern: Art works created by Western European and Russian artists in late 19th – early 20th century - very few pictures:

Franz Xaver Winterhalter ( Born: 20 April 1805; Menzenschwand, Germany, Died: 08 July 1873; Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Field: painting, lithography, Nationality: German, Art Movement: Neoclassicism, Romanticism) - Portrait of Countess Olga Shuvalova - 1858:

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François Flameng - Reception at Compiegne in 1810, 1894-96. François Flameng produced a series of paintings devoted to Napoleon Bonaparte. The four paintings treat episodes in the emperor's biography as genre scenes with an almost intimate approach. The paintings were acquired by the Russian emperor Nicholas II and presented to his wife, Alexandra Fiodorovna:

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Scholz - Prostitute - 1929:

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Wassily Kandinsky, 16 December 1866 – 13 December 1944, was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting one of the first purely abstract works. Kandinsky began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. In 1896 Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe's private school and then at the Academy of Fine Arts. He returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Communist Moscow, and returned to Germany in 1921. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944:

Wassily Kandinsky - Winter Landscape - 1909:

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Wassily Kandinsky - Landscape - 1913:

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Wassily Kandinsky - Composition VI - 1913:

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