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  • History | Greece > Chania
    Updated at May 22,2013

    The Venetians, during the 13th century, bought Crete from the Marquis of Montferrat, Who led the Fourth Crusade, which ended with the fall of Constantinople. But after a short time the army of Genoa, with the help of local Cretans, conquered Chania and took control of the city. It took the Venetians 20 years to get the city back, and after that episode they ruled the city with a tighter feast. The Venetian harbor was built between 1320 and 1356, and was used for commerce and to secure the control of the Sea.

  • History
    Updated at Feb 28,2014

    2 Days in the British Museum:

    Free. Open daily 10.00–17.30, Fridays until 20.30.

    The main Entrance to the BM:

    BM Courtyard from Floor 3:

    BM Courtyard from the Restaurant:

    5th Floor anf glass ceiling of Norman Foster:

    The main entrance: Necanebo Obelisque - 350 B.C:

    Egyptian sculpture - Room 4, 2600 BC – 2nd century AD. Free guided tour, daily, 14.30,  Ancient Egypt, Room 64 .  

    The Rosetta Stone, Room 4, Egypt, Ptolemaic Period, 196 BC:

    Ancient Egyptian Mummies. Rooms 62-63:

    Cleopatra Mummy, Roman period, 200 A.D:

    Soter Tomb, Artemidorue Mummy, South of Cairo, Hwarta, 100-120 AD:

    Hornedjitef Mummy, Luxor, 240 B.C:

    Hor, the senior priest, Mummy, Luxor, 700 B.C:

    Wood cover of Hornedjitef Mummy, Luxor, 240 B.C:

    Wooden tomb of King Intef, 1600 B.C, Dra-Abu-el-Naga:

    Wooden burial tomb, Katebet, 1300 B.C, Luxor-Thebes:

    Wooden burial tomb, Pasenhor, 730-680 B.C, Luxor:

    Covers of wooden burial coffins, temple of Amon priests, Deir-el_bahri 1000-900 B.C‎:

    Wooden coffin, Necropolis of ASyot, Hetepnebi, approx. 2090 B.C:

    Segment of burial paint, tomb of Seti the 1st in the Valley of Kings, 1500-1070 B.C:

    Part of giang Sarcofag of red granite, 5th Dynasty, 2400 B.C.:

    The ancient Egyptians believed that there are many water ways in the deads world - so they buried their deads with wooden boats, 1985-1795 B.C‎:

    A typical tomb, Predynastic, 3400 B.C., Skeleton with burial items:

    Rahotep relief, 2600 B.C:

    Marble sculpture of Kaitep and his wife, 5th-6th dynasty, Giza,
    2300 B.C‎:

    Wahibre, senior administrator brings tribute (sculpture of Osiris, God of Sun) to the King, 530 B.C.:

    Black granite sculpture of Sakhmet, the 18th Dynasty, 1350 B.C:

    Head of Raamses II, 19th Dynasty, 1270 B.C, west to Luxor:

    Raamses VI, 20th Dynasty, 1150 B.C:

    Godess Hathor, Temple Amonhotep II, 18th Dynasty, Luxor, 1400 B.C.:

    Head of Amenophis III, 18th Dynasty, 1390 B.C.:

    Red Granite sculpture of a King, 18th Dynasty, 1450 B.C., Karnac Temple in Luxor. Tutemosis III or Amenophis II:

    Part of relief from the Nihebsedpey omb, 2100 B.C.:

    Colossal head of Amenhotep III around 1350 BC:

    Amenophis II - 1400 B.C., Luxor:

    Sudan, Egypt & Nubia - Room 65: Sandstone statue of Paser,
    From Abu Simbel, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, around 1250 BC. A viceroy of Nubia presenting an altar to the god Amun:

    Lower Egypt and Sudan, Nubia, Granite Sphynx of King Tahora, 25th Dynasty, Kawa, 690-664 B.C:

    Nubia, Nubes are painted as black figures, bringing tributes to Kings of Egypt: Giraffes skins, goats and fish:

    Nubia, relief from a Pyramid in Meroe, where Queen Shanakdakhte been buried, 2nd century B.C (from 2nd century B.C until 4th century A.D - kings were buried in Pyramids):

    Nebamun Tomb, Wood Stella - 1070-945 B.C.:
    1350 B.C, Dra-Abull-Naga:

    Ancient Egypt (cont.):

    Stone Stella - Royal Dynasty brings gifts to Gods, Abydos 1295-1186 B.C:

    Wooden Staella, 3rd century B.C:

    The Deads Book that replaced wooden tomb, written with pen on paper, 1480 B.C:

    Wooden figures of Osiris, God of Sun, brought as gifts to the deads:

    Statue of Ankwa 2800 B.C.:

    Sarcofage on a coffin (530 B.C) of Ankhnenefe, last godess-queen of Amon Temple before the Persian conquest in 525 B.C:

    Ancient Mesopotamia - Room 56: Achievements of the Sumerians, Akkadians, and Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia at this time:

    Harp from Ur, 2500 BC:

    Statue of Cudea 2150 B.C., King of Lagash, builder of temples:

    Letter from Ishkun-Dagan  2250 B.C., Acadian Empire: 

    Ramina Thicket, sculpture of standing goat on blooming flower, Ur, 3rd Dynasty, 2500 B.C.:

    Queen of the Night, Ishtar, 1792-1750 B.C.:

    Syria, Tel-Halaf, stone relief, 1200-900 B.C.:

    Very ancient human figure, Neolithic Period, 7200 B.C. (!), Ein-Gazal, Zarka valley, Jordan:

    Ancient Levant - Rooms 57-59:

    King Idrimi of Alalakh 1570-1500 B.C:

    Small ivory reliefs, Phoenician culture, 9th-8th centuries, Namrut, Nort Iraq / Turkey:

    Assyrian Culture: Rooms 6-10, Free guided tour, daily, 15.45, Assyrian Reliefs, Room 6.

    Winged Lion with human face, 865-863 B.C., Nimrod Mountain (Nemrut Dagi), Turkey, 35 km. south of Mosul:

    King Ashurnasirpal, 860-805 B.C.:

    Protective Spirit:

    Nenrut, 865-860 B.C.:

    King Ashurnasirpal, Nemrut, 865-860 B.C.:

    City under siege, Tiglat-Pileser (744-727 B.C.) Palace, Nemrut, 728 B.C.:

    Tiglat-Pileser III, 728 B.C.:

    Fight scene, Great Lion, 728 B.C., Ugallu, Sennacherib Palace, Ninve:

    Part of war relief, Palace of Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) , Khorsabad, South Iraq, 640-620 B.C.:

    Sargon II Palace, Khorsabad. Sargon left the former capital, Nemrut (built by Tiglat-Pileser). His son, Sennacherib, left his father's capital as well and built the new capital in Ninve:

    Conquest of Lachish (Israel) by Sanherib, 701 B.C.:

    Royal expedition of Lions hunt:

    Slaves bring tributes to the King - mainly, lions' bodies:

    Segment of black Obelisk, Shalmaneser III (858-824 B.C.) from 827 B.C., Nemrut:

    Lion from Ishtar Palace. Ishtar was the war goddess of the Assyrians. The lion symbolizes Ishtar and stands in front of the palace:

    Ancient Greece - rooms 11-19, Free guided tour, daily, 11.30,  Room 17.

    Elgin Collection, Room (Hall) 18, from the Parthenon. The Parthenon was built during 447-438 B.C. and was decorated by sculptures of Phidias, mostly of Atena, goddess of war:


    Dionisus and head of oxe, Elgin Collection:

    Centaurs against the LLapiths:

    Greek and Roman Sculpture room 23: Aphrodite in Bath from the 1st century AD. This sculpture belonged to King Charles I and was sold after the King's execution. It was found and was returned to the Museum's collection:


    Colossal marble statue of Apollo, Roman, 2nd century AD, From Cyrene, Libya. This colossal marble statue came from the Temple of Apollo at Cyrene in modern Libya. The statue of Apollo was found broken into 121 pieces, laying near the large pedestal on which it had originally stood. The fragments were painstakingly removed from the site and reassembled in the British Museum:

    Room 17: Nereid Monument, Lykia. Xantos was capital of Lykia. Discovered in 1838-1844 by Charles Fellows. Lykian tomb of  Lykian nobles, 390-380 B.C. They were buried in an elevated podium which looks like Greek temple:

    Room 19 - The temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheum - Sculpture of Athena-Nike:

    Room 21: The Mausoleum at Halikarnassos was built as a tomb for Maussollos, a member of the Hekatomnid dynasty who governed Karia in south-west Asia Minor,  Bodrum (turkey):

    Mycenaeans Culture, Room 12 a-b, 3200 – 1100 BC:

    Cycladic Islands - Room 11: Perykles head, died 429 B.C.:

    Bassae Temple of Apollo, South of Olympia, 420-400 B.C., Centaurs against the Lapyths:

    The Greeks against the Amazons:

    Room 73: Greeks in Italy. Bronze horse and rider. Greek statue from Italy, 550 B.C.:

    Hoe Hakananaai'a, Easter Islands: Room 24: Living and Dying.

    Totem, British Columbia, Canada:

    Mexico: Room 27. Gallery tour -daily, 13.00 (for 30–40 minutes), free, Meet in Room 27.

    Mask in Turquoise of Xiuthecuhtli God of Fire, 15-16th centuries AD, Azteca, Mexico:

    Miclantecuhtr, seating God with deads mask (the death ritual), Azteca, 16th AD:

    Stone mask of Xipetotec, the God responsible for changes and transformations (for example: from the dry season to the rain season):

    Codex Zouche-Nuttall, Mixtec, Late Post-classic period, 1200-1521 AD,
    From Mexico. This is one of a small number of known Mexican codices (screenfold manuscript books) dating to pre-Hispanic times. It is made of deer skin and comprises 47 leaves. one side of the document relates the history of important centres in the Mixtec region, while the other, starting at the opposite end, records the genealogy, marriages and political and military feats of the Mixtec ruler, Eight Deer Jaguar-Claw. Here, you see only one page of the manuscript:

    AfricaThe Sainsbury Galleries, Room 25. Gallery tour -daily, 12.00 (for 30–40 minutes), free, Meet in Room 24.

    Otobo (Hippo) Masquerade, 1995, Kalabari people:

    Mask, Malawi, Chewa people, Latu, 20th centurey:

    Mask, Punu people, Gabon, 19th Century:

    Iron Masks:

    Masdquerades - Men Masks in ceremonies of change: birth, death, change of seasons:

    Benin Plaques, Oba Palace, Nigeria:

    Benin (nigeria) Palace, 20th Century:

    Wood Carving, Sudan, Azande people, 19th Century:

    Tree of Life. Sculpture made of hundreds of weapons, made around the globe, none of them in Africa. After the civil war in Mozambique 1977-1992:

    Throne of weapons. Sculpture made of hundreds of weapons, made around the globe, none of them in Africa. After the civil war in Mozambique 1977-1992. In 1985 the Christian Council of Mozambique set up a project of transforming arms into tools:

    Weaving with golden strings on black silk. Algerian artist, 2001. A tribute to Jalal-al-Din-al-Rumi, the mystic-Sophic poet from the 13th Century who settled in Konya, Turkey - after long trips in the Mediterranean and North Africa:

    Textiles from Africa:

    Part of a door panel, Yoruba people, Nigeria, 1910-1911:

    Otobo - Hippo,  - person disguised as a big animal, which predates travelers, Kalabari, South-Nigeria:

    Sculpture made of wood, textile, steel, fibres -  Kalabari, South Nigeria:

    Object of Power, Igbo, Nigeria, 20th Century:

    Panel from wooden door, Palace of King Ogoga, Ikere, Yoruba region, Nigeria:

    Rooms 40-50: Britain and Europe:

    Gold Cape, Wales. 1900-1600 B.C:

    The Battersea Shield, Iron Age, 350-50 B.C:

    The Shehisham Treasure, 100 BC, Norfolk, Bronze Necklaces:

    Mildenhall Treasure, 4th century A.D, Roman Britain, Suffolk:

    Sutton Hoo, Burial site of Kings of Britain, 700-600 BC:

    Lewis Chessmen, discovered in year 1831 in Lewis island (west Scotland). Chess was a popular game from the 1st Millenium AD and played among men and women:

    The Royal Golden Cup, from France, the 14th century. Given by James I to the ruler of Castille and used in official ceremonies:

    Glass artworks with Chinese influence, made during the first 40 years of the 19th century:

    Porcelain dishware manufactured in the Tzarist factory in St. Petersburg:

    A porcelain cup from Limouge, France (the 17th century) , from the collection of Baron Rotshield (died 1898): Ahasuerus, Ester and Haman:

    Porcelain cup and plate, year 1560, from the collection of Baron Rotshield (died 1898): Jacob Dream:

    The Lyte Jewel, Britain 1610, miniature with figure of King James I and diamonds:

    Roman portraits (Room 85), The Wolfson Gallery, 1st – 4th century AD:

    Emperor Hadrian, Bronze Head, 117-138 A.D:

    Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 A.D:

    Cupid dancing, 10-100 A.D:

    Etruscan world (Room 71) 3000 BC – 1st century:

    Seated Etruscan Figure - 540-520 B.C:

    Two Seated Etruscan Figure - 625-600 B.C:

    Room 72: Ancient Cyprus:

    Heads found in Cyprus 700-50 B.C:

    Ancient Cyprus, 450 A.D. Head of young Athlet:

    450 A.D. Colossal Bearded Man:

    China - Rooms 33-33b: Guided gallery tour, free, Daily.
    China: 12.15 (for 30–40 minutes)
    South Asia: 12.45 (for 30–40 minutes):

    Budai, "the laughing fat", one of future Buddhaa metamorphoses. Installed in gates of temples and monasteries:

    Budai, again, on the right side and a Daoist God on the left:

    Buddha Akshobya, Bronze, Tibet, 13th century:

    A trumpet from shell, copper, gold and precious stones, Tibet, 18-19th centuries AD:

    Seven eyes of Bodhisattva: three in his head and four in his legs, porcelain: 

    Bronze sculpture of a God who sits with Gui (Ceremonial Tablet), Qing dynasty, China, 17-18th centuries:

    Wei Tuo, military figure ( probably the King), 1626 AD, Ming dynasty, China:

    Ceramics sculpture of immortal, Daoist (Dao = path, way, principle, concept) figure named Han Xiangzi, 17-18th centuries, Ming dynasty, China:

    Sancai group. Figures in tri-colorr, taken from a tomb of Tang dynasty, 8th century AD, China:

    Tomb guard man, Tang dynasty, 7th or 8th century, clay:

    Guardian King of the North, isoteric figure of the King of the North, 12th century AD, Dali, Yunnan, China:

    Stone figure of a Judge (one of ten judges in hell). The judge holds a file of good deeds, Ming dynasty, 16th century AD:

    The other side of the spectrum - one of the hell judges holds a thick file of bad deeds:

    South Asia - Rooms 33- 33b:

    Buddha + 2 Budhisattvas, 4-5 centuries AD, West Pakistan:

    Buddha from Gandahara, 100-300 AD. Buddhaa himself died at 400 BC. Figures representing Buddhaa started to appear from 10-50 AD or 500 years after his death:

    Buddhaa from Borobidur temple in Java, 9th century AD. In Java you can find Buddhism and Hinduism:

    A stone relief where Buddhaa convinces his cousin, Nanda, not to marry and to become an hermit (the bride sits opposite the mirror...), Gandahara, 2-3 centuries AD:

    Stone relief, Buddhaa says goodbye to the palace's mistresses before exiting to his enlightenment journey. Pakistan, 2-3th centuries AD:

    Buddhaa with a crown (called, sometimes, King of Kings), 18-19th centuries AD, North Burma:

    Head of Buddhaa, 14th century AD, Sukhothay, Thailand. Sukhothay was the ancient Thai capital. From 1350 AD the capital moved to Ayutthaya. After the Burmese destroyed Ayutthaaya the capital moved, in 1767, to Bangkok:

    India - Room 33:

    Ganesh, "the Hurdles Remover", Orissa, India, 13th century:

    Vishnu (left), his wife Paravaati (right) - the divine couple, Ganesh parents. Ganesh is under Vishnu feet. Together, they symbolize the union of gendres. Orissa, India, 12th-14th centuries.

    Wooden relief, dancer and players, Kashmir, India, 9-10th centuries:

    Dvrapala - Temple's door guard man, Tamil Nadu, South India, 12th century:

    Shiva and Paravaati. Bottom: their children Ganesh and Karttikeyk. Decca, 1000 AD:

    Elephant and riders, West Deccan, 13th century:

    Ravana, the demon with ten hands (every one with another weapon), which kidnapped Sita. Her husband, Rama, released Sita -  with the help of Hanuman and his army of monkeys:

    Shiva Natarajh, 110 A.D, South India. Shiva holds a drum in his right hand, symbolizing creativity. In his left hand he holds fire flames - symbolizing destruction. His left leg is twisted upward - symbolizing that he is not afraid. He is dressed as  male and female. Pointing on the left leg - indicating relaxation:

    Buddha from Sarnath, India, 5-6 centuries A.D. In this place was the first revelation to Buddhaa:

    Ganesh (with Elephant head) dancing, 750 AD, India:

    Shiva, Lord of Dance, Orisa, India, 13th century AD:

    Japan - Rooms 92-94. Free guided tours everyday, 11.00, room 92.

    Haniwa - Tomb Figures.  Kofun period, 6th century AD:

    Statue of Fudo Myo-o, Heian period, 12th century AD:

    Samurai Katana:

    Statue of a retired townsman, Edo period, late 17th - early 18th century AD:

    Kakiemon elephants, Edo period, late 17th century AD:

    Wooden figure of the Buddha Amida, Kamakura period, 13th century AD:

    Nō theatre mask of a young woman, 18th-19th century AD:

    Kudara Kanon 600 AD, National Treasure:

    Chinese Ceramics, Room 95:

    Korea Room 67:

    Budhisattve (1100-1300):

    Ancient Iran, 3000 BC – AD 651 - Room 52:

    Relief from temple in Persepolis, 470-451 B.C., the King on his throne:

    The East India House Inscription, Neo-Babylonian dynasty, about 604-562 BC, From Babylon, southern Iraq, The religious devotion and building works of Nebuchadnezzar II:

    Ceremonial stella, 900-800 B.C., Marduk Temple, Kassite Kingdom, Agar Quf the capital of the Kassite kingdom9 Built from 1400 BC):

    Lion attacks oxe, relief  from Darius (Daryavesh) palace, Persepolis, 518-339 BC:

    Relief of guardman on the palace of Persepolis:

    York Collection - Temporary exhibits in Room 2 (June 2010):

    A warrior holds another warrior's head in one hand (holding a trophy head) and an axe in another hand - expression of power and wealth, Costa Rica, 1500 -1000 AD:

    Wooden mask from New Guinea, 1700 AD. Used in ceremonial and religious events:

    Wooden Totem, Central America:

    Enlightenment Gallery - the Library:

    Copy of the Rosetta Stone in the Enlightenment Gallery:

    Enlightenment Gallery - The Piranesi Vase, 18th century:

    Enlightenment Gallery - Venus:

    Enlightenment Gallery - Zeus:

    Enlightenment Gallery - Hercules - 300-125 B.C:

    Clocks and Watches Rooms 38-39: A Clock from 1650:

    Mechanical Ship year 1568:

    Clock from year 1705:

    Clock from year 1955:

    Room 50: Britain and Europe (clocks):

    The Monumental Clock with the ringing figures, Crillion 1589:

    Cassiobury Park Clock, the first clocks in Europe with mechnical mechanism for clicking:

    Tableclock from England, 1690 AD, made by Thomas Tompion for King William III: