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  • Museums | Germany > Feldberg
    Updated at May 28,2013

    Near the mountain there is a nice museum (free entrance with black forest card), and a small pool with one slide (also free with black forest card).

  • Museums | Germany > Todtnau
    Updated at May 22,2013

    Before visiting the waterfalls you might like to visit the local glass factory and museum, located in an old wooden house, 3 stories high, called “Glosblaserhof”. Here you will find glass artifacts, jewels and other fine (and expansive) accessories. There is also a nice restaurant in the location.

  • Museums | Germany > Freiburg
    Updated at May 22,2013

    The new Augustiner Museum features a renowned art collection with works from the middle ages up to the Baroque period, as well as paintings from the 19th century. You can also visit Museum of Natural History (Naturmuseum und ethnologische Sammlung ), or the botanic garden, which is open daily from 8:00 till 18:00.

  • Museums | Germany > Gutach, Germany > Schwarzwälder Freilichtmuseum Vogtsbauernhof
    Updated at May 28,2013

    Not far from a the Rodelbahn you can visit the Freilichtmuseum Vogtsbauernhof (open air museum). The museum, located on a farmhouse dating to 1612, features reconstructed buildings and simulations of the activities typical to a farmhouse in those days.

    You can see an exhibition of typical work carried out by travelling craftsmen, exhibitions on dairy and livestock farming in the Black Forest and exhibition of woodworking craft. There is also an exhibition on clocks and traditional costumes of the Black Forest, and of forestry management and glassblowing and a collection of regional stone and minerals. I wouldn’t miss the demonstration of the old flower mill - the kids loved it (

  • Museums | Russian Federation
    Updated at Nov 22,2015

    St. Petersburg - - Hermitage Museum - General Staff Building - The Impressionism Exposition:

    Duration: 1/2 day.

    View of the General Staff Building from the Palace Square (Dvortsovaya Square):

    The General Staff Building (Zdanie Glavnovo Shtaba, Здание Главного штаба), (6-10 Dvortsovaya Embankment), is an edifice with a 580 m. long bow-shaped facade, situated OPPOSITE the Winter Palace. It is a grandiose monument in the Empire style, erected in the course of the reconstruction of the Palace Square in 1819-29 (designed by Carlo Rossi), in commemoration of Russia's victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 and the campaigns of 1813-14 against Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. The building complex included the construction of two wings which are separated by a triumphal arch adorned (decoration forming compositions of arms and armour) by sculptors Stepan Pimenov and Vasily Demuth-Malinovskyof. The construction of the Triumphal Arch, connecting both parts of the building was completed in 1829. The arch links Palace Square through Bolshaya Morskaya St. to Nevsky Prospekt and it also commemorates the Russian triumphs against Napoleon. The Triumphal Arch is crowned by the Chariot of Glory - from the (southern side) Palace Square side.

    The homogeneity of the main elements of the General Staff building and the Winter Palace creates the impression of integrity of the Palace Square ensemble. The majestic Triumphal Arch forms a symmetrical axe with the central part of the Winter Palace.

    Until the capital was transferred to Moscow in 1918, the building served as the headquarters of the General Staff (western wing), Foreign Ministry and Finance Ministry (eastern wing). Since 1993, the Hermitage has had control of both wings of the building, and uses them to display a variety of permanent exhibitions of applied art connected to the history of the building, completed at the height of the Russian Empire, soon after Russia's victory against Napoleon.

    Three halls on the second floor of the building, running along the northern facade (the Palace Square side), house a permanent exhibition, The Art of Modern. It features art works created by Western European (mostly, French) and Russian artists in late 19th – early 20th century: garments, lacework, articles made of porcelain, ceramics and glass. Nearby rooms in the former ministerial block of the General Staff Building accommodate an exposition devoted to the History of the Ministry of Finance. From 1830 to 1918, the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Empire, Provisional Government and the Russian Soviet  Republic was headquartered here. The complex of ministerial premises included Office of the Minister of Finance with Chamber, Library and Credit Chancellery Office.

    Several large halls on the third floor are devoted to the Russian painting of the 19th – early 20th century. Art works by such artists as K.P. Bryullov, A.A. Ivanov, V.A. Tropinin, K.S. Petrov-Vodkin, B.M. Kustodiev, I.N. Kramskoy, V.E. Makovsky enable us to trace the development of the Russian school of painting.

    A part of the Russian Guards Museum’s collection, Russian Guards in the 18th century, will be shown in halls on the third floor of the General Staff Building, facing the Moika River Embankment. Visitors will have an opportunity to see uniforms, weaponry, combat banners and colours, as well as gifts – valuable regalia, preserved by Russian officers’ descendants and returned to Russia after staying abroad for a long time.

    A permanent exhibition Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia: St. Petersburg’s Era 1802-1917 is placed nearby; it details the history of the Russian Foreign Ministry starting from the date of its foundation by Emperor Alexander the First to 1917, featuring paintings and graphics, photographs, historical relics and pieces of decorative and applied arts.

    An exhibition entitled 'Realms of the Eagle' compares French and Russian decorative art and costume in the Imperial Age, contrasting the cultural influences of Napoleon and Alexander I. Housed in the former offices of the General Staff, - the halls, designed by the great Russian architect of the first quarter of the 19th century, K.I. Rossi, and painted by P.I. Scotti. The collection is not particularly rich, but has a clear and cleverly presented concept, exploring the different ways these two empires chose to represent themselves.

    The halls devoted to Carl Fabergé are one of the most fascinating parts of the new museum complex. They demonstrate the heritage of the firm, founded by renowned Carl Fabergé, as well as further developments and achievements of contemporary jewellery and stone-cutting art.

    From 7 December 2014, when the State Hermitage Museum celebrated its 250th anniversary - the permanent exhibition Modern European Art is held in the eastern wing in the fourth floor, the Memorial Gallery devoted to S.I. Shchukin and the Morozov brothers. The Hermitage's superb collection of Modern European Art, the bulk of which is made up of French impressionist and post-impressionist painting, is divided between those works that were received into the Hermitage collections after the Revolution, and art seized from Germany after World War II. The former are displayed on the museum's fourth floor, and include some of the world's largest collections of works by Picasso and Matisse. But, far more Impressionists' masterpieces are included in the 4th floor extensive collection: Renoir, Monet, Cezanne, Pissarro, Van Gogh, Gaugin and many others.

    The new exposition is unique in the way that for the first time, the Hermitage collection of the 19th-20th century French painting is demonstrated in full, without dividing artworks based on the principle of receipt. The Gallery opens with Claude Monet’s hall featuring fourteen paintings by the artist; then the theme of Impressionism is continued in Edgar Degas’ hall with his Place de la Concorde, a room with still-life paintings by Henri Fantin-Latour, a hall of landscape paintings by Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley. The next two halls hold an exceptionally rich collection of art works by Auguste Renoir. Further, works of art by Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin are demonstrated, followed by Les Nabis painters’ halls. After 10 years, canvas by Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis returned back to the General Staff Building.

    The fourth floor exhibition ends with a small collection of pre-Revolutionary Russian modern art, including canvases by Vasiliy Kandinskiy and Kazimir Maleevich - the most and significant names of the Russian avant-garde. Now they have only one hall with Kandinsky and other avant-gardes - but soon there will be much more rooms.

    The modern Art exposition is NOT easy to find and NOT really well advertised - so hurry up, before this building will be flooded by thousands of visitors every day. It is an astonishing experience. it's far of being jam-packed like the Hermitage. We went to the Impressionist era exhibition in July, a regular weekday, at 14.00. It is right the middle of the school holidays (busiest time at the museums in Russia) and there were hardly more than 10 visitors in the whole floor. It is unbelievable how the Hermitage emerged as one of the leading museums in the world of Modern Art - as well. It is amazing the taking photographs is FREE and how close you can get to the paintings.

    Temporary Exhibitions: wonderful expositions of: Tibetan Art, Finnish Modern Architecture etc' are held during the period from NOV 2015 to Spring 2016 in the General Staff Buildings.

    Prices: Separate ticket - 300 RUB. Free - for students (country does not matter). Combined tickets: The Main Museum Complex and its branches:
    the General Staff Building, the Winter Palace of Peter the Great,
    the Menshikov Palace, the Museum of the Imperial Porcelain Factory - 600 RUB (valid for two consecutive days). FREE admission for all visitors: The first Thursday of every month.

    Opening hours: Tuesday, Thursday, , Friday, Saturday, Sunday: 10.30 - 18.00, Wednesday 10.30 - 21.00. Closed: Mondays, as well as January 1 and May 9.

    Getting there: Metro: Admiralteyskaya:

    Practicalities: The small cafe' or restaurant is out of the cashiers and security control mechanisms. So, you CANNOT eat or rest and return to the expositions in the floors above.

    Free photos-shooting.

    Head straight up in the lift to the fourth floor and enjoy!

    Now, your best advice: buy the combined (one-day or two-days) ticket in the General Staff Building. Start your day in the Modern European Art exhibition and continue to the Winter Palace OR rush, with your ticket to the Hermitage Main Complex entrance - skipping the l-on-g queues there !!!!

    Exterior: The building itself is awesome and a real treat because it's so brilliant and modern in comparison to the Hermitage. The inner yards have been covered with glass roofs. Magnificent modern staircases have been installed inside. These modern aspects work extremely well with the historic building, the historical interiors (that are well preserved) and the fabulous pieces of art that are exhibited. The whole blend - IS SPECTACULAR !

    The first atrium in the new wing of the Hermitage Museum:

    Another sensation you cannot miss - a moving exposition of a Roman Mosaic found in Lod, Israel. Breathtaking ! :

    Impressionism - Shchukin Gallery - 4th Floor:

    Matisse Room: Two Russian art collectors stood out at the beginning of the 20th century: the cloth merchant Sergei Shchukin (1854–1936) and the textile manufacturer Ivan Morozov (1871–1921). Both acquired modern French art, developed a sensibility for spotting new trends, and publicized them in Russia. In 1906 Sergei Shchukin met the young artist Henri Matisse, and became one of Matisse's main patrons, acquiring 37 of his best paintings over an 8-year period. Shchukin also commissioned several large-scale pictures from him that would later acquire worldwide fame. In order to come to terms with these huge canvases and their radical simplicity, Shchukin shut himself away alone with them in his palatial house for several weeks. Many of his visitors reacted with bafflement to these latest purchases. Shchukin jokingly remarked, “A madman painted it and a madman bought it.” Shchukin and Matisse would develop more than just a commercial relationship. With Shchukin’s support and backing, Matisse was free to strive toward even greater artistic challenges. Henri Matisse’s (1869–1954) early years were spent in northern France where his middle-class family owned a general store. Although he studied in Paris to be a lawyer, in 1890, while confined to his bed for nearly a year after an operation, he chose drawing as a pastime. When he recovered, he decided that painting would be his career. At first Matisse followed in the footsteps of the Impressionists, but he soon abandoned their more delicate palette and established his characteristic style, with its flat, brilliant color and fluid line, a style that came to be known as Fauvism. Like many avant-garde artists in Paris, Matisse was receptive to a broad range of influences. He was one of the first painters to take an interest in non-European art, studying Persian miniatures, Japanese prints, and African sculptures, but a visit to Moscow where he saw early icon painting seemed to hold special importance to him. He once commented, “What interests me most is neither still life nor landscape but the human figure. It is through it that I best succeed in expressing the nearly religious feeling that I have toward life.”. Matisse traveled widely in the early 1900s when tourism was still a new idea. Brought on by railroad, steamships, and other forms of transportation that appeared during the industrial revolution, travel became a popular pursuit. As a cultured tourist, he developed his art with regular doses of travel and in 1911 visited his patron Shchukin’s collection in Moscow. During the trip Matisse encountered Russian icons. This would have a tremendous impact on his future work. Matisse is known to have said, “I spent 10 years searching for what your artists already discovered in the 14th century. It is not you who need to come to us to study, but it is we who need to learn from you.”. As we can see from Girl with Tulips, which was completed a year before his visit to Moscow, by 1910 Matisse was already working with luminous color and simplified forms. The model for the painting is Jeanne Vaderin, or Jeannette, as Matisse called her. She was the subject of several of his paintings, drawings, and sculptures. Matisse arrived in Moscow on October 23, 1911. The next day, he visited the Tretyakov Gallery and asked to be shown their collection of Russian icons. Matisse was delighted by the icons and declared that to see them was more than worth the arduous trip. Matisse spent much of his time in Moscow frantically visiting monasteries, churches, convents, and collections of sacred images. Excited by what he saw, he shared it with all who came to interview him during his stay in Moscow. “They are really great art,” Matisse excitedly told an interviewer. “I am in love with their moving simplicity.… In these icons the soul of the artist who painted them opens out like a mystical flower. And from them we ought to learn how to understand art.”:

    Matisse - Ballerina:

    Matisse - Family Portrait:

    Matisse - Fruits, Flowers, the Dance:

    Matisse - Conversation:

    Matisse - Harmony in Red:

    Jean Joveneau. - Still Life with a Mirror, 1912:

    Marie Laurencin, Artemis,1908:

    It was through Matisse that Shchukin got to know Pablo Picasso, who became the final master in his collection. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Shchukin owned the largest collection of Picassos in the world. 51 pictures covered the walls of an entire room, right up to the ceiling. The Picasso collection covers his most popular early periods, and includes Sisters, from the painter's Blue Period, and several cubist masterpieces including Three Women (1908) and a stunning Still Life of 1913:

    Picasso - Absinthe Drinker, 1901:

    Picasso - Nude, 1909:

    Picasso - Woman Playing Mandoline, 1909:

    Picasso - Violin and Guitar, 1913:

    Picasso - Bust of a Nude, 1907:

    Picasso - Dance with Veils, 1907:

    Picasso - Friendship, 1908:

    Picasso - Woman with a Fan, 1908:

    Picasso - Three Women, 1908:

    Maurice de Vlaminck - View of a Small Town,1913:

    Andre Derain - Harbor in Provence. André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter and sculptor. He attended painting classes under Eugène Carrière, and there met Matisse. In 1900, he met and shared a studio with Maurice de Vlaminck (see picture above) and began to paint his first landscapes. His studies were interrupted from 1901 to 1904 when he was conscripted into the French army. Following his release from service, Matisse persuaded Derain's parents to allow him to abandon his engineering career and devote himself solely to painting. Derain and Matisse worked together through the summer of 1905 in the Mediterranean village of Collioure and later that year displayed their highly innovative paintings at the Salon d'Automne. The vivid, unnatural colors led the critic Louis Vauxcelles to title their works as les Fauves, or "the wild beasts", marking the start of the Fauvist movement. In March 1906, the noted art dealer Ambroise Vollard sent Derain to London to compose a series of paintings with the city as subject. In 30 paintings (29 of which are still existing), Derain put forth a portrait of London that was radically different from anything done by previous painters. These London paintings remain among his most popular work. In 1907 art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler purchased Derain's entire studio, granting Derain financial stability. He moved to Montmartre to be near his friend Pablo Picasso and other noted artists. At Montmartre, Derain began to shift from the brilliant Fauvist palette to more muted tones, showing the influence of Cubism and Paul Cézanne. Derain supplied woodcuts in primitivist style for an edition of Guillaume Apollinaire's first book of prose, L'enchanteur pourrissant (1909). He displayed works at the Neue Künstlervereinigung in Munich in 1910, in 1912 at the secessionist Der Blaue Reiter and in 1913 at the seminal Armory Show in New York. He also illustrated a collection of poems by Max Jacob in 1912. At about this time Derain's work began overtly reflecting his study of the Old Masters. The role of color was reduced and forms became austere; the years 1911–1914 are sometimes referred to as his Gothic period. In 1914 he was mobilized for military service in World War I and until his release in 1919 he would have little time for painting, although in 1916 he provided a set of illustrations for André Breton's first book, Mont de Piete. After the war, Derain won new acclaim as a leader of the renewed classicism then ascendant. With the wildness of his Fauve years far behind, he was admired as an upholder of tradition. In 1919 he designed the ballet La Boutique fantasque for Diaghilev, leader of the Ballets Russes. A major success, it would lead to his creating many ballet designs.The 1920s marked the height of his success, as he was awarded the Carnegie Prize in 1928 and began to exhibit extensively abroad—in London, Berlin, Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, New York City and Cincinnati, Ohio. During the German occupation of France in World War II, Derain lived primarily in Paris and was much courted by the Germans because he represented the prestige of French culture. Derain accepted an invitation to make an official visit to Germany in 1941, traveling with other French artists to Berlin to attend an exhibition by Nazi sculptor Arno Breker. The Nazi propaganda machine naturally made much of Derain's presence in Germany, and after the Liberation he was branded a collaborator and ostracized by many former supporters.A year before his death, he contracted an eye infection from which he never fully recovered. He died in France in 1954 when he was struck by a moving vehicle:

    Renoir - Ball at the Moulin de la Gallette, 1879: (many more Renoir pictures - see at the Morozov Gallery, see below).

    Impressionism - Morozov Brothers Gallery - 4th Floor:

    Claude Monet - Garden, 1873. Claude Monet was a famous French painter whose work gave a name to the art movement Impressionism, which was concerned with capturing light and natural forms:

    Degas - Place de Concord, 1876:

    Edouard Manet - Mme. Isabelle, 1879. Édouard Manet, 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a key figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism:

    Jean Jacques Henner - Woman in Red - 1890. THIS IS A STRIKING PICTURE. Jean-Jacques Henner, 15 March 1829 – 23 July 1905, was noted  in painting nudes, religious subjects, and portraits. Henner was born at Alsace. He began his studies in art as a pupil of Michel-Martin Drolling and François-Édouard Picot. In 1848, he entered the École des Beaux Arts in Paris, and took the Prix de Rome with a painting of Adam and Eve finding the Body of Abel in 1858. He first exhibited Bather Asleep at the Salon in 1863 and subsequently contributed Chaste Susanna (1865), now in the Musée d'Orsay. The Levite of the Tribe of Ephraim (1898) was awarded a first-class medal. Henner also took a Grand Prix for painting at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900. He was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1873, Officer in 1878, and Commander in 1889. In 1889, he succeeded Cabanel in the Institut de France. Henner died at age 76 in Paris:

    Henri Fantin Latour - Still Life - 1865. Best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers:

    Alfred Sisley - La Garenne - 1872. Alfred Sisley, 30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899, was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship. He was the most consistent of the Impressionists in his dedication to painting landscape outdoors. He deviated into figure painting only rarely and, unlike Renoir and Pissarro, found that Impressionism fulfilled his artistic needs. Over the years Sisley's power of expression and color intensity increased. Among his important works are a series of paintings of the River Thames, mostly around Hampton Court, executed in 1874, and landscapes depicting places in or near Moret-sur-Loing. The notable paintings of the Seine and its bridges in the former suburbs of Paris are like many of his landscapes, characterized by tranquility, in pale shades of green, pink, purple, dusty blue and cream:

    Camille Pissarro - Fair in Dieppe - 1901. Camille Pissarro, 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903, was a Danish-French Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. He later studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin:

    Camille Pissarro - Boulvard Montmartre - 1897:

    Camille Pissarro - Place du Theatre, Paris - 1898:

    Now we arrive to a long and impressive series of pictures by Auguste Renoir. Auguste Renoir, 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919, was a  leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. A painter of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality. His early works were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light. By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women. As a young boy, he worked in a porcelain factory. His drawing skills were early recognized, and he was soon employed to create designs on the fine china. He also painted decorations on fans before beginning art school . He moved to Paris in 1862 to study art, where he met Frederic Bazille, Claude Monet, and Alfred Sisley, all great impressionist painters. By 1864, he was exhibiting works at the Paris Salon, but his works went largely unnoticed for the next ten years, mostly in part to the disorder caused by the Franco-Prussian War. Later, during the Paris Commune on 1871, Renoir was painting on the banks of the Seine River, when he was approached by a number of members from the commune, who thought he was a spy. They threatened to throw in into the rive, but he was saved by the leader of the commune, Raoul Rigault, whom he had protected on an earlier occasion. He experienced his first artistic success in 1874, at the first Impressionist Exhibition, and later in London of the same year. In 1881, Renoir began his world travels, voyaging to Italy to see the works of the Renaissance masters, and later to Algeria, following in the footsteps of Eugene Delacroix. It was in Algeria where he encountered a serious bout with pneumonia, leaving him bed ridden for six weeks, and permanently damaging his respiratory system. In the later years of his life, not even severe rheumatoid arthritis, which left him confined to a wheelchair and limited his movement, could deter Renoir from painting. His arthritis eventually got so bad as to leave a permanent physical deformity of his hands and shoulder, which required him to change his painting technique to adapt to his physical limitations. Before his death in 1919, Renoir traveled to the Louvre to see his paintings hanging in the museum alongside the masterpieces of the great masters. He was a prolific artist, created several thousands artworks in his lifetime, and include some of the most well-known paintings in the art world:

    Auguste Renoir - A Young Woman with a Fan - 1880:

     Auguste Renoir - Lady in Black - 1876:

    Auguste Renoir - Lady on Stairs - 1876:

    Auguste Renoir - Actress Jeanne Samary - 1878:

    Auguste Renoir - Girl Arranging Her Hair - 1887:

    Auguste Renoir - Girl with a Whip - 1885:

    Auguste Renoir - Girl with a Hat - 1872:

    Auguste Renoir - In the Garden - 1885:

    French artist Paul Signac was born in Paris on November 11, 1863. He began his artistic career in 1880 after viewing an exhibition of Monet's work. A friendship with Neo-Impressionist painter Georges Seurat led him to adopt the new Divisionist style in such works as "The Dining Room," "Women at the Well" and many seascapes of the French coast. Signac was committed to anarchist politics and was a mentor to younger avant-garde artists, including Henri Matisse. He died in Paris on August 15, 1935.

    Paul Signac - Port of Marseille - 1906-7:

    Paul Cézanne, 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906, was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all.":

    Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) - Girl at the Piano - 1869:

    Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) - The Pool - 1876:

    Paul Cézanne - Bathers - 1890-1:

    Paul Cézanne - Smoker - 1890-2:

    Paul Cézanne - Lady in Blue - 1900:

    Paul Gauguin, 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903, was a French Post-Impressionist artist who was not well appreciated until after his death. Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. His work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Paul Gauguin is one of the most significant French artists to be initially schooled in Impressionism, but who broke away from its fascination with the everyday world to pioneer a new style of painting broadly referred to as Symbolism. As the Impressionist movement was culminating in the late 1880s, Gauguin experimented with new color theories and semi-decorative approaches to painting. He famously worked one summer in an intensely colorful style alongside Vincent Van Gogh in the south of France, before turning his back entirely on Western society. He had already abandoned a former life as a stockbroker by the time he began traveling regularly to the south Pacific in the early 1890s, where he developed a new style that married everyday observation with mystical symbolism, a style strongly influenced by the popular, so-called "primitive" arts of Africa, Asia, and French Polynesia. Gauguin's rejection of his European family, society, and the Paris art world for a life apart, in the land of the "Other," has come to serve as a romantic example of the artist-as-wandering-mystic. After mastering Impressionist methods for depicting the optical experience of nature, Gauguin studied religious communities in rural Brittany and various landscapes in the Caribbean, while also educating himself in the latest French ideas on the subject of painting and color theory (the latter much influenced by recent scientific study into the various, unstable processes of visual perception). This background contributed to Gauguin's gradual development of a new kind of "synthetic" painting, one that functions as a symbolic, rather than a merely documentary, or mirror-like, reflection of reality.
    Seeking the kind of direct relationship to the natural world that he witnessed in various communities of French Polynesia and other non-western cultures, Gauguin treated his painting as a philosophical meditation on the ultimate meaning of human existence, as well as the possibility of religious fulfillment and answers on how to live closer to nature. Gauguin was one of the key participants during the last decades of the 19th century in a European cultural movement that has since come to be referred to as Primitivism. The term denotes the Western fascination for less industrially-developed cultures, and the romantic notion that non-Western people might be more genuinely spiritual, or closer in touch with elemental forces of the cosmos, than their comparatively "artificial" European and American counterparts:

    Paul Gauguin - Conversation - 1891:

    Paul Gauguin - Pastoral Tahiti - 1892:

    Paul Gauguin - Two Sisters - 1892:

    Paul Gauguin - Woman Holding a Fruit - 1893:

    Paul Gauguin - Canoe - 1896:

    Paul Gauguin - Still Life with Sunflowers on an Armchair -1901:

    Vincent van Gogh, 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890, was a Post-Impressionist painter. He was a Dutch artist whose work had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. Van Gogh painted portraits, self portraits, landscapes and still lives of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers. He drew as a child but did not paint until his late twenties.Many of his best-known works were completed during the last two years of his life. In just over a decade, he produced more than 2,100 artworks, including 860 oil paintings and more than 1,300 watercolors, drawings, sketches and prints:

    Van Gogh - Landscape - 1889:

    Van Gogh - Madame Trabuc - 1889:

    Van Gogh - Arena at the Arles - 1888:

    Van Gogh - Lilac Bush - 1889:

    Édouard Vuillard - Madame Vuillard by the Fireplace - 1899-1900:

    Édouard Vuillard - In the Room - 1900:

    Édouard Vuillard - Children in the Room - 1909:

    Maurice Denis, November 25, 1870 – November 13, 1943, was a French painter and writer, and a member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. His theories contributed to the foundations of cubism, fauvism, and abstract art:

    Maurice Denis - Bacchus and Ariadne - 1907:

    Pierre Bonnard, 3 October 1867 – 23 January 1947, was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, and his paintings are often characterized by a dreamlike quality. The intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny. His compositions rely less on traditional modes of pictorial structure than poetic allusions and visual wit. Regarded as a late practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color and his complex imagery:

    Pierre Bonnard - Early Spring - 1909:

    Pierre Bonnard - Morning in Paris - 1911:

    Pierre Bonnard - Evening in Paris - 1911:


    Floor 2 - The Art of Modern: Art works created by Western European and Russian artists in late 19th – early 20th century - very few pictures:

    Franz Xaver Winterhalter ( Born: 20 April 1805; Menzenschwand, Germany, Died: 08 July 1873; Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Field: painting, lithography, Nationality: German, Art Movement: Neoclassicism, Romanticism) - Portrait of Countess Olga Shuvalova - 1858:

    François Flameng - Reception at Compiegne in 1810, 1894-96. François Flameng produced a series of paintings devoted to Napoleon Bonaparte. The four paintings treat episodes in the emperor's biography as genre scenes with an almost intimate approach. The paintings were acquired by the Russian emperor Nicholas II and presented to his wife, Alexandra Fiodorovna:

    Scholz - Prostitute - 1929:

    Wassily Kandinsky, 16 December 1866 – 13 December 1944, was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting one of the first purely abstract works. Kandinsky began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. In 1896 Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe's private school and then at the Academy of Fine Arts. He returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Communist Moscow, and returned to Germany in 1921. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944:

    Wassily Kandinsky - Winter Landscape - 1909:

    Wassily Kandinsky - Landscape - 1913:

    Wassily Kandinsky - Composition VI - 1913:

  • Museums | United Kingdom
    Updated at Aug 12,2016

    Continued from the "Oxford - Day 1 - The Ashmolean Museum - "The world belongs to those who know how to wait" Arthur Evans (1894)" blog.

    Main Attractions: Asmolean Museum - level 3M, St. Balliol College, John College.

    Room/gallery 62 - Modern Art: Photography NOT allowed.

    Howard Hodjkin - Tea Party in America:

    Room/gallery 63 - Contemporaries:

    Robert Polhill Bevan (1865 - 1925) - Showing at Tattersalls:

    Robert Polhill Bevan (1865 - 1925) - The Chestnut Tree:

    Robert Polhill Bevan (1865 - 1925) - In the Downs near Lewes:

    Room/gallery 65 - Camille Pissarro (1830 - 1903):

    Camille Pissarro - Bouquet of pink Peonies, 1873:

    Camille Pissarro - Jeanne Holding a Fan, c.1874:

    Camille Pissarro - Farm at Montfoucault, Snow Effect, 1874-1876:

    Camille Pissarro - Gathering Grass, 1883:

    Camille Pissarro - View from my Window, Éragny-sur-Epte, 1888. The painting shows a view from the Pissarro's house at Éragny, looking towards the village of Bazincourt. The painting, which the artist referred to as 'modern primitive', was begun in 1886 but not completed until two years later, in the 'Pointillist' technique Pissarro used for several years:

    Camille PIssarro - Tuilleries Gardens, Rainy Weather, 1899:

    Edward Manet - Mme. Claus, 1868-1869. The subject is Fanny Claus, a famous violinist who was a close friend of the artist’s wife. From the late 1860s onwards when Manet began to focus his attention on his family and close friends. A concert violinist and member of the first all-women string quartet, Fanny was one of Manet’s favourite sitters and a member of a close-knit group of friends who also provided the artist with models. She married the artist Pierre Prins (1838–1913), another friend of Manet’s, in 1869, but died of tuberculosis just eight years later at the age of 30:

    Toulouse-Lautrec - La Toilette, 1891:

    Room/Gallery 66, European Art 19th century:

    Frederic Lord Leighton - Acme and Septimus, 1868:

    James Jaques Joseph Tissot (1836 - 1902), Quarreling:

    William Turner of Oxford - High Street, Oxford. William Turner (1775 - 1851) was an English painter who specialized in water-colour landscapes. He is different from the more famous artist J. M. W. Turner. He is often known as William Turner of Oxford or just Turner of Oxford to distinguish him from his better known William Turner. Many of Turner's paintings depicted the countryside around Oxford. In 1898 the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford held a retrospective exhibition of his work. Some of his paintings are still on permanent display at this museum:

    William Turner of Oxford - Ehrenbreitstein (The Bright Stone of Honour) and Tomb of Marceau (from Lord Byron’s ‘Childe Harold’) , near Laurley, Coblenz, Germany, 1817:

    William Turner of Oxford - The Devil's Bridge, St. Gotthard Pass, 1804:

    Edward Lear, Sunrise from the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, 1865:

    William Dyce, Jacob and Rachel, 1857:

    The new Cascading Staircase and Zvi and Ofra Meitar Attrium form the central core of the new design of the museum:

    Rooftop terrace and restaurant of the museum:

    We leave the Ashmolean Museum. With our back to Beaumont Street and on our right is Magdalen Street and on our left is the St. Giles' Street - we see two colleges on these two roads: On our right (south - Magdalen Street) is Balliol College

    and on our left, north - along its continuation St. Giles' Street) is the St John's College:

    Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers: H.  Asquith, Harold Macmillan, and Edward Heath. Political economist Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, who is perhaps the best known alumnus of the college. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol with the help and supervision of the Bishop of Durham. The oldest parts of the college are the north and west ranges of the front quadrangle, dated to 1431, respectively the medieval hall, west side, now the "new library" and the "old library" first floor north side. For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate adjacent college to the east - Trinity College. Open: everyday 10.00- 17.00 (or dusk, whichever is sooner). Price: £2 per adult, £1 concessions and students. From time to time - you may find the college closed due to academic events. You can also telephone on the day to check openings: 01865 277777. Cafeteria: The Buttery in the Garden Quad serves light refreshments and is open to the public when the College is open to visitors. Opening times are: Term time: MON - FRI 12.30 to 21.00, SAT 11.00 - 17.00. Out of term: MON - FRI 11.00 - 18.00, SAT 11.00 – 17.00.


    Balliol College Chapel:

    St John's College, part of the the University of Oxford was founded in 1555, on the site of the old Cistercian College, by the merchant Sir Thomas White (lately Lord Mayor of London). It was built to provide a source of educated Roman Catholic clerics to support the Counter-Reformation under Queen Mary. St John's initially had a strong focus on the creation of a proficient and educated priesthood. St John's is the wealthiest college in Oxford - largely due to nineteenth century suburban development of land in the city of Oxford, of which it is the ground landlord. The college occupies a central location on St Giles' and has a student body of approximately 390 undergraduates and 250 postgraduates, as well as over 100 academic staff members. The Front Quadrangle mainly consists of buildings built for the Cistercian St Bernard's College. Construction started in 1437. The turret clock, made by John Knibb, dates from 1690. OPen: daily - 13.00 - 17.00.

    Canterbury Quad -  The entrance to the Great Lawn and Groves:

    St John’s College Chapel:

    The nearby Lamb and Flag Pub and Restaurant  is owned and operated by the college.

  • Museums | United Kingdom
    Updated at Aug 27,2017

    One day in the National Gallery, London (Level 2 ONLY):

    Room 2 - Titian - Bacchus and Ariadne:

    Room 2 - Palma Veccio - A Blonde Woman - might be NOT on display:

    Room 2 - Titian and Venice 1500–1530 - Vincenzo Catena - Portrait of the Doge, Andrea Gritti, probably 1523-31

    Room 4 - Germany - Hans Holbein the Younger - A Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling:

    Room 4 - Lucas Cranach the Elder - Portrait of Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous:

    Room 4 - Younger Hans Holbein - The Ambassadors, 1533:

    Room 6 - Venice 1500–1600 - Jacopo Tintoretto - The Origin of the Milky Way, about 1575:

    Room 6 - Paolo Veronese - The Rape of Europa, about 1570:

    Room 7 - scenes from the Old Testament story of Joseph - Bacchiacca -
    Joseph pardons his Brothers:

    Room 8: Raphael - Pope Julius II, 1511:

    Room 9 - Venice 1530-1600 - Paris Bordone - A Pair of Lovers:

    Room 10 - Ferrara and Bologna - Garofalo - An Allegory of Love, about 1527-39:

    Room 11 - Joachim Beuckelaer painted The Four Elements in 1569 - The Four Elements: Water - 1569:

    Room 12 - Northern Italian Portraiture 1510–1580 - Lorenzo Lotto - Portrait of a Woman inspired by Lucretia, about 1530-2:

    Room 14 - Pieter Bruegel the Elder - The Adoration of the Kings, 1564:

    Room 14 - Jan Gossaert (Jean Gossart) - Adam and Eve, about 1520:

    Room 14 - Jan Gossaert (Jean Gossart) - Man with Rosary, 1525-1530:

    Room 14 - The Netherlands - Jan Gossaert (Jean Gossart) - THe Adoration of the Kings, 1510-1515:

    Room 16 - Dutch Interiors - Johannes Vermeer - Young Woman standing at a Virginal, about 1670-2:

    Room 18 - Peter Paul Rubens - Samson and Delilah, about 1609-10:

    Room 18 - Peter Paul Rubens - Peace and War, 1629-30:

    Room 18 - Peter Paul Rubens - The Judgement of Paris, 1632-5:

    Room 18 - Peter Paul Rubens - A Lion Hunt, about 1614-15:

    Room 21 - Van Dyck - Anthony van Dyck - Portrait of Cornelis van der Geest, about 1620:

    Room 21 - Anthony van Dyck - Portrait of the Abbé Scaglia, 1634:

    Room 22 - Rembrandt - An Elderly Man as Saint Paul, 1659:

    Room 22 - Rembrandt - Portrait of Aechje Claesdr, 1634:

    Room 22 - Rembrandt - Self Portrait at the Age of 34, 1640:

    Room 23 - Dutch Portraits - (might NOT be on display) - Judah and Tamar - Aert de Gelder, about 1681:

    Room 23 - Frans Hals - Portrait of a Middle-Aged Woman with Hands Folded, about 1635-40:

    Room 24 - Biblical Stories - Rembrandt - Belshazzar's Feast, about 1636-8:

    Room 24 - Joachim Wtewael - The Judgement of Paris, 1615:

    Room 29 - Seaport - Claude, 1644:

    Room 25 - A new art for a new nation - Frans Hals - Young Man holding a Skull (Vanitas), 1626-8:

    Room 29 - French Painting 1600–1700 - Seaport with the Embarkation of Saint Ursula - Claude, 1641:

    Room 29 - Nicolas Poussin - The Finding of Moses, 1651:

    Room 29 (may be NOT on display) - Studio of Peter Paul Rubens - Portrait of the Infanta Isabella, about 1615:

    Room 30 - Spain - (might be NOT on display) - Diego Velázquez - Philip IV hunting Wild Boar (La Tela Real), 1632-7:

    Room 30 - Diego Velázquez - Portrait of Archbishop Fernando de Valdés, 1640-5:

    Room 30 - Diego Velázquez - The Toilet of Venus ('The Rokeby Venus'), 1647-51:

    Room 30 (might be NOT on display) - Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio -
    The Supper at Emmaus, 1601:

    Room 31 - A different view of Flanders - Peter Paul Rubens - Portrait of Susanna Lunden(?) ('Le Chapeau de Paille'), 1622-5:

    Room 32 - Italy - (might be NOT on display) - Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - Salome receives the Head of John the Baptist, 1609-10:

    Room 33 - France 1700-1800 - (might be NOT on display) - Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun - Self Portrait in a Straw Hat, from 1782:

    Room 33 - Jean-Honoré Fragonard - Psyche showing her Sisters her Gifts from Cupid, 1753:

    Room 33 - François-Hubert Drouais - Madame de Pompadour at her Tambour Frame, 1763-4:

    Room 33 - Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun - Madame de Pompadour at her Tambour Frame, 1788:

    Room 34 - Great Britain 1750-1850 - Thomas Gainsborough - The Morning Walk, 1785:

    Room 34 - George Stubbs - Whistlejacket, about 1762:

    Room 34 - William Hogarth - The Graham Family, 1742:

    Room 34 - John Constable - The Hay Wain, 1821:

    Room 34 - John Constable - The Cornfield, 1826:

    Room 35 - Hogarth and British Painting - The Marriage Settlement - , William Hogarth, about 1743:

    Room 35 - William Hogarth-  The Toilette, about 1743:

    Room 36 - British Portraits 1750-1800 - Joshua Reynolds - Colonel Tarleton, 1782:

    Room 38 - Canaletto and Guardi - Canaletto - The Stonemason's Yard, about 1725:

    Room 38 - Canaletto - The Grand Canal with S. Simeone Piccolo, about 1740:

    Room 38 - Canaletto - Regatta on the Grand Canal, about 1740:

    Room 38 - Canaletto - The Basin of San Marco in Venice on Ascension Day, about 1740:

    Room 39 - Spain and Venice 1700-1800 - Francisco de Goya - Isabel de Porcel, before 1805:

    Room 40 - Italy 1700-1800 - Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo - The Building of the Trojan Horse, about 1760:

    Room 41 - Cézanne, Monet, and Matisse - (might be NOT on display) - Claude Monet - Water-Lilies, after 1916:

    Room 41 - André Derain - Madame Matisse au Kimono, 1905:


    Room 42 (might be NOT on display) - Pierre-Auguste Renoir - Dancing Girl with Tambourine, 1909:

    Room 42 - Degas and Art around 1900 - (might be NOT on display) - Pierre-Auguste Renoir - The Lunch, 1901:

    Room 42 - Odilon Redon - Ophelia among the Flowers, about 1905-8:

    Room 43 (or 41) - Camille Pissarro - Portrait of Cézanne, 1874:

    Room 43 - Seurat, Gauguin, and Van Gogh - Georges Seurat - Bathers at Asnières, 1884:

    Room 43 - Camille Pissarro - Rainy Morning in Blvd. Monmartre, 1897:

    Room 43 - Vincent van Gogh - Sunflowers, 1888:

    Room 44 - Manet, Monet, and the Impressionists - Claude Monet - The Beach at Trouville, 1870:

    Room 44 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir - At the Theatre (La Première Sortie), 1876-7:

    Room 44 - Camille Pissarro - The Pork Butcher, 1883:

    Room 45 - Romantic Painters - Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld - Ruth in Boaz's Field, 1828:

    Room 46 - 19th-Century Landscape Painting in Europe - Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot - Italian Woman, about 1870:

  • Museums
    Updated at Aug 25,2015

    The THREE Pushkin Museums of Fine Arts: (Mузей изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина)

    The museum is comprised of three distinct buildings. The original building, now exclusively presents the collections up to the end of the 19th Cent (Volkhonka street 12) - Old Masters, Ancient Egyptian art, plaster casts. The State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts' building was designed by Roman Klein and Vladimir Shukhov and financed primarily by Yury Nechaev-Maltsov. Construction work began in 1898 and continued till 1912. Opening hours:  TUE - SUN: 11.00 to 20.00, Ticket desk (entrance): 11.00 to 19.00, THU: 11.00 to 21.00, Ticket desk (entrance): 11.00 to 20.00. Closed - MON. Prices: 300 rub. – adults, 150 rub. – students, seniors, free – children under 16. A joint ticket*: Main building, 19th and 20th C. European and American Art: 550 rub. – adults,
    300 rub. – students, seniors. *only permanent exposition (without exhibitions), valid 5 days since was bought, no exchange or return:

    Take photo of the golden dome of the St. Saviour Cathedral from the Volkhonka street 12 building entrance stairs:

    To its left as you face it is a separate building (light blue in color) (Volkhonka street 14) housing the Impressionism and Post Impressionism, Modernist and Cubist - up to the present day - 19C and 20C European and American Art section of the Pushkin State Museum (Volkhonka street 14).  Opening hours TUE - SUN: 11 .00 to 20.00. Ticket desk (entrance): 11.00 to 19.00. THU: 11.00 to 21.00, Ticket desk (entrance): 11.00 to 20.00. Closed - MON. Prices: 300 rub. – adults, 150 rub. – students, seniors,
    free – children under 16. A joint ticket*: Main building, 19th and 20th C. European and American Art: 550 rub. – adults, 300 rub. – students, seniors. *only permanent exposition (without exhibitions), valid 5 days since was bought, no exchange or return. Not too much difficulty here, though certain rooms, such as those displaying the Impressionists, can get a little crowded. Compared with the St Petersburg Hermitage - Russia's other great museum of the arts - it feels virtually deserted. If you want the place completely to yourself, winter is the quietest time to come; it's very cold in the streets but a very atmospheric time to be in Moscow. Sunday is the busiest day:

    To its right stand a third building said to include art works from private collections (including the world’s largest collection of work by Alexander Rodchenko) (Volkhonka Street 10):

    The frustration arises from the fact that all three seem to operate independently, and none seems to know what the others are doing. the museum has been divided to three separate expositions - so, you should pay three times to see all its treasures.

    The "Pushkin" Museums have little to do with the famous poet; the name was simply changed to honor him during Pushkin Centennial "madness" in the mid 1930's. In 1932 it officially became known as the State Museum of Fine Art. The museum was finally (after a few changes of name in the Soviet era) renamed to honor the memory of Pushkin in 1937, the 100th anniversary of his death. The facility was founded by professor Ivan Tsvetaev (father of the poet Marina Tsvetaeva). Tsvetaev persuaded the millionaire and philanthropist Yuriy Nechaev-Maltsov and the fashionable architect Roman Klein of the urgent need to give Moscow a fine arts museum.

    CLOSED (all three museums), Tuesdays - only the Private Collections wing.


    • Main Building: from 11.00 to 20.00, THU - from 11.00 to 21.00.
    • 19th and 20th European and American Art bldg.: from 11.00  to 20.00, THU -  from 11.00 to21.00.
    • Private collections bldg.: from 12.00 to 20.00, THU - from 12.00  to 21.00. Closed Mondays, Tuesdays.


    • MAIN BUILDING: Adults - 300 rub.
      Students, seniors - 150 rub.
      Children under 18 — free.
    • 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN ART: the stunning 19th & 20th century art collection, in the most left separate building (left of the main museum) -  Adults - 300 rub;
      Students, seniors & artists - 150 rub.
      Children under 18 — free.
    • PRIVATE COLLECTIONS: Adults - 200 rub;
      Students, seniors & artists - 100 rub.
      Children under 18 — free.
    • Joint tickets:
      Main Building, 19th and 20th Cent. Art, Private Collections:

      Adults - 750 rub
      Students, seniors & artists - 450 rub

      Main Building, 19th and 20th Cent. Art

      Adults - 550 rub
      Students, seniors & artists - 300 rub.

    Duration: 1 day. The place is so big and there is so much to see. In case you visit the THREE museums - please allow up to 2-3 hours per each of the museum's sites.

    Photography: (with no flash) - allowed. No videos.

    Nearest metro stations: Kropotkinskaya (Кропоткинская, м.) (Red line), 3 minutes walk, Borovitskaya (м. Боровицкая, м.), Lenin Library ( Библиотека им. Ленина).


    • Separate these THREE museums and the Tertyakov museum for different days of visit.
    • Check the schedule on the museum web site, then you will know for sure what is presented in the time of your visit.
    • There are cheaper tickets for Russian citizens and the nationality is usually judged by the language you use in the cashier. So if you  are able to ask for the tickets in Russian, you'll get a cheaper price.
    • There are many replicas (especially, in the central wing building). You have to read the captions to discover that they are not original. it goes back to earlier times when it was difficult for Russians to travel outside their borders to see the types of arts that existed elsewhere in the world. Foreign visitors should understand that museum was created for educational purposes, and not as a store of art.
    • The top hits: The main building: good collections of art of ancient civilizations, including the Schliemann treasure from Troy that had disappeared for a long period after WW2 (A German archaeologist donated the collection to the city of Berlin, from where it was appropriated by the Soviets in 1945).
    • Excellent Flemish and Dutch paintings, including a few outstanding (Rembrandt, Van Gogh, Breughel, Van Dyck,  Rubens, Frans Snyder). Also the collection of medieval Italian art (Botticelli, Tiepolo and Veronese).
    • In the left building: the Impressionism collection (Cezanne, Degas, Gauguin, Manet, Monet, Matisse, Pisarro, Renoir, Alfred Sisley). Fine paintings of Kandinsky, Miro and Picasso. Many rooms dedicated to sole artists. Spread over three floors chronologically. Head up and start at the top floor. Plenty of originals to be admired.
    • Temporary exhibitions are most often excellent. Check web site for current exhibitions:
    • No need for audio guides. There were not plenty of labels in English - mainly, for the key works. Many other exhibits don't have English signage.
    • There is a cafe, but- it is closed to all but staff between 13.00-14.00.
    • Weekends could be crowded - in the main building of ancient civilizations.

     Main Building:

    The ceremony for the laying of the Museum's foundation stone took place on August 17, 1898 in the presence of Tsar Nicholas II and members of his family. The name of the museum – Alexander III Fine Arts Museum – was officially approved. Building work had commenced a month before that ceremony, which was important as by then the Committee for the Establishment of the Museum already had at its disposal a major part of its collections. The Museum was created on the basis of Moscow University's "Cabinet of Fine Arts and Antiquities" which had been set up as both a public museum and one for educational purposes. In it the main stages in the history of art from ancient times until the post-Renaissance era were represented through casts, models, painted copies and galvanocopies. This museum was the first of its kind in Russia. Work to create it had been initiated (1893) by the highly respected Professor Ivan Tsvetaev (1847-1943), who had a doctorate in Latin literature and art history and was later to be the Museum's first director (1911-1913). At the end of 1896 a competition to design the building for the Museum was announced and 19 architects from various cities in Russia took part. From among the entrants the University Board selected Moscow architect, Roman Klein (1858-1924), to build the Museum. It was constructed in keeping with the latest building techniques and principles of museum practice. The design was based on the model of a Classical temple on a high podium with an Ionic colonnade along its façade. The interior decoration combined elements drawn from the various historical periods represented by the exhibits.

    Front left gallery with statues at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts:

    Back side of the main Building:

    Several highlights by rooms:

    Copy of the Porch of the Caryatids from the Acropolis of Athens, at the Greek Courtyard (room 14) at the Ground Floor of the Main Building. Room 14. The Greek Courtyard is one of the largest and most beautiful galleries in the Museum, where casts of surviving statues and reliefs from the Parthenon (447-432 BC) are displayed, where there is a life-size model of the Caryatid porch of the Erechtheum, one of the porch of the Temple of Hephaistos above the Athens Agora (market-place) and also a model of the Athens Acropolis:

    Statue of Athena at the Greek Courtyard at the Ground Floor of the Pushkin Museum Main Building:

    Room 16. The Art of Ancient Greece: The high-point in the flowering of art and culture in Ancient Greece was the 5th century BC, the era of classical Greek art. A gallery which has come to be called the Olympian Gallery is dedicated to the art of this period. The most famous works of that era are represented by plaster casts:

    Statue of King Arthur at the Italian Courtyard (room 15) at the Ground Floor of the Pushkin Museum Main Building. The architecture of this Gallery is a free re-creation of the inner courtyard of the Bargello Palace in Florence (which currently houses the city's sculpture museum). The Palazzo, built between 1260 and 1320, served for a time as the residence of the city's chief magistrate, the Podestà, which explains its other name: Palazzo del Podestà. Palaces of this kind, impressive in size, were reminiscent of church buildings as far as their scale and decoration were concerned: they asserted the prestige, wealth and power of Florence's new patrician class. The Palazzo had been erected at the very end of the Middle Ages and beginning of the Renaissance. Exhibits in this Gallery give visitors an idea of these two stages in European culture – copies of works by sculptors from Germany, France and Italy. The reproductions of masterpieces of European sculpture provide vivid illustrations of the evolution of styles and trends in the art of the 13th-16th centuries. Not only do the examples of medieval German sculpture in this Gallery not clash with the main display of Italian Renaissance sculpture but, on the contrary, they help us to understand the great changes which the era of the Renaissance brought with it:

    The Art of Ancient Egypt:

    The museum has over 6,000 items of Egyptian art, from the Predynastic (4th century BCE) to the Coptic era (4th-7th century). The collection includes examples of Fayum Mummy portraits (50 BCE-250 CE) - panel paintings which demonstrate a combination of ancient Egyptian and Hellenistic-Roman artistic traditions. These portraits were painted on wooden boards and attached to mummies. The majority were found in the necropolis of Faiyum, and were perfectly preserved by the dry Egyptian climate.

    Cosmetic Spoon (end of the 15th century BCE) in the form of floating girl. The spoon is made from ivory and is modelled in the form of a nude elegant girl swimming with a lotus flower - Ground floor room 1:

    Egyptian wooden Boat - Ground floor Room 1:

    Egyptian Sarcophague - Ground floor Room 1:

    Statue of Pharaoh Amemenhet (19th century BCE) - Ground floor room 1:

    Figures of High Priest Amenhotep and Priestess Rannai (15th century BCE) - Ground floor room 1:

    Assyric Winged lion from the castle of Ashurnasirpal II - Ground floor Room 2:

    Part of Priam's Treasure - Ground floor Room 3:

    Sarcophagus with figures of Bacchus, Ariadne and Hercules (c.210) - Ground floor room 4:

    Stele depicting Two Warriors (370 BCE) - Ground floor room 5:

    Fayum Portraits - Ground floor room 6:

    The Picture Gallery:

    European Paintings: 8th - 16th Century:

    The museum owns a small collection of Byzantine Art, mainly icon paintings and mosaic art, as well as a collection of Renaissance paintings. Painters represented include Sienese painter Sassetta (c.1450), Umbrian School artist Perugino (1446/50-1523), Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), Italian Mannerist Il Bronzino (1503-72) and Paolo Veronese (1528-88). Paintings from the Dutch Renaissance and German Renaissance (c.1400-1580) are also represented, including those by painter and woodcut print maker Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553). Paintings of particular note include -

    • The Annunciation by Botticelli, tempera on panel (1490s)

    See also Russian medieval painting, notably the celebrated Novgorod school of icon painting, and read about the three greatest painters: Theophanes the Greek (c.1340-1410), Andrei Rublev (c.1360-1430), and Dionysius (c.1440-1502).

    Andrey Rublev, Russian icon of the Old Testament Trinity between 1408-25:

    European Paintings: 17th - 18th Century:

    This is one of the major groups of paintings in the museum's picture gallery. It includes works by most of the major movements (Baroque and Rococo) of the era, from Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and Netherlands. Artists represented include painter, etcher and print maker Rembrandt (1606-69), Dutch landscapes painter Jacob van Ruisdael (1628-82), Flemish Baroque artist Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) and Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678); as well as vedute painters Canaletto (1697-1768) and Francesco Guardi (1712-93), Spanish painter Francisco Zurbaran (1598-1664), Bartolome Murillo (1617-82), Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) and Francois Boucher (1703-1770).

    Solomon and the Queen of Sheba by Hans Vredeman de Vries, Ground floor Room 8:

    Peter Paul Rubens, Bacchanal (Ground floor room 9):

    Rembrandt, Portrait of an Old Man (1654) - Ground floor room 10:

    Rembrandt (1660), Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther - Ground floor room 10:

    Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem, Allegory of Faith - Ground floor Room 11:

    The Finding of Moses, Pietro Liberi (1614) - Ground floor room 17:

    Francisco de Zurbarán, Madonna and Child, 1658 - Ground floor room 18:

    Nicholas Poussin, The Continence of Scipio (1640) - Ground floor room 21:

    Francois Boucher, "Hercules and Omphale" (1735) - Ground floor room 22:

    19th and 20th European and American Art Museum:

    The Gallery of Art from the Countries of Western Europe and America of the 19th and 20th centuries is a NEW Department within the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. It opened its doors to the public only in August 2006.

    The building at 14, Volkhonka St. was previously the left wing of the residence of the Princes Golitsyn in the 17th-19th centuries, which had been built by the St. Petersburg architect, S.I.Chevakinskii, and the Moscow architect, I.P.Zherebtsov. This building was later lent features in the style of Early Classicism by the celebrated architect M.F.Kazakov. In 1890-1892 it was redesigned to provide rented accommodation and came to be known as "Princes Court". Great Russian artists Vasilii Surikov, Ilya Repin and Leonid Pasternak lived there for many years, as did the composer Alexander Scriabin. When this building was acquired by the Pushkin Museum, it was completely renovated between 1988 and 1993 in order to house the Department known as the Museum of Private Collections. This carried forward the traditions of the original building, where a picture gallery and Classical "rarities" from the collection of M.A.Golitsyn had been on display for the public. In this sense the Gallery of Art from the countries of Western Europe and America of the 19th and 20th centuries takes up the torch, since the history of the assembly of its collection is inextricably linked with the history of art collecting in Moscow and the names of such famous patrons of the arts as Sergei Tretyakov, Sergei Shchukin and Ivan Morozov. Twenty-six of the Museum's galleries contain a wide-ranging collection of works by masters of the 19th and 20th centuries. There are whole galleries devoted to individual trends in European art or to the work of a single artist. In a gallery specially set aside for the purpose there are works by the German school of the early-19th century, represented by Caspar David Friedrich and the "Nazarene" painters. Small galleries enable the public to appreciate, in a new light, well-known works by Eugène Delacroix and Ingres. The Spanish school is represented by Goya. A separate gallery has been set aside for members of the Paris salon dedicated to the work of J. Jerome, P. Delaroche and E.L.Izabe Works by French landscape painters Corot and the artists of the Barbizon school - Théodore Rousseau, Jules Dupré, Diaz de la Pena and Charles-François Daubigny seem almost predestined for the interiors of this Museum. Canvases by Gustave Courbet, Jean Millet and Honoré Daumier further enhance this panorama of French realist art. Pride of place in this gallery is assigned to the painting of French impressionists, post-impressionists and masters from the early-20th century: Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Camille Pissarro, Edgar Degas, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, members of the "Nabis" group, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, André Derain and Henri Rousseau.. In a new display it is possible to find works by representatives of other European schools as well and also works of American painters. Alongside canvases by Kandinsky, Chagall and Georgio de Chirico hang pictures by Achille Funi, Karl Hofer, Felice Casorati, H. Grundig, F. Beringer and Rockwell Kent. Works by major European sculptors are also on display – Barye, Rodin, Maillol, Bourdelle, Ossip Zadkine and Hans Arp. Whole rooms are devoted to a single movement in European art or the work of a single artist. There is a special room for the early 19th-century German school of painting represented by the works of Caspar David Friedrich and the Nazarenes. Smaller rooms enable visitors to take a new look at the well-known pictures of Eugene Delacroix and Jean-Dominique Ingres. The Spanish school is represented by Francisco de Goya. There is a special room for the Paris Salon painters Jean-Leon Gerome, Paul Delaroche and Eugene Louis Isabey. The works of the French landscape painters Camille Corot and members of the Barbizon School Theodore Rousseau, Jules Duprd, Diaz de la Pena and Charles Daubigny seem to have been specially intended for the Gallery's interiors. Canvases by Gustave Courbet, Jean-Franqois Millet and Honore Daumier complete the panorama of French realist art.

    The first half of the 19th century was characterized by changing and developing artistic trends. This is reflected in the museum's collection. While classicism was still highly regarded, romanticism and realism were making an appearance. The great French Romantic Masters, Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) and artist/lithographer Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) are represented in the collection, as well as European landscape painting reformers John Constable (1776-1837) and Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796-1875). There are also works by the Barbizon school as well as by realist artists such as Gustave Courbet (1819-77) and Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75), and the German Romantic landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840). When the New Western Art museum was shut in 1948, its highly developed collection of French painting from the 19th/20th century was split between the Pushkin and the Hermitage museum. The Pushkin received paintings of rare artistic and historical value covering art movements such as Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Pointillism, Divisionism, Les Nabis and Primitivism. Artists in the collection include Claude Monet (1840-1926), Renoir (1841-1919), Degas (1834-1917), Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Alfred Sisley (1839-99), Cezanne (1839-1906), Van Gogh (1853-90), Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), Maurice Denis (1870-1943), Matisse (1869-1954) and Picasso (1881-1973). Among the highlights of the collection is Van Gogh's The Red Vineyard (1888, Le Vigne Rouge/the red vineyard) which is reportedly the only painting sold by the artist in his lifetime.

    Here are several highlights:

    Floor 1 - rooms 8-17:

    Eugène Delacroix, After the Shipwreck (1847) or Dead body of Don Juan thrown to the water (floor 1, room 8):

    • Portrait of Mme Mariette Gambay (1869-70) - Camille Corot (room 9):

    Claude Monet, Water-Lily Pond (1899) room 11:

    • "Blue dancers" by Edgar Edgar Degas - room 11:

    • Nude (1876) by August Renoir - room 11:

    • Girls in the Beach by August Renoir - room 11:

    • Water Lillies by Claude Monet - room 11.

    • Camille Pissarro - Morning - room 11:

    • Man Smoking a Pipe by Paul Cezanne - room 15:

    • Pierrot and Harlequin (1888-90) / Mardi Gras" by Paul Cézanne (1888) - room 15:

    • Pine Tree in St. Tropez by Paul Siognac - room 15:

    Landscape of Carriage and Train - Van Gogh - room 15:

    • Prisoners in Prison - Van Gogh - room 15:

    • Flowers in France - Paul Gaugin - room 17:

    • The King's Wife - Paul Gaugin - room 17:

    • Still life with Parrots - Paul Gaugin - room 17:

    • Paul Gauguin's "Do Not Work" (1896) - room 17:

    Second Floor - rooms 18-26:

    Bourdelle - Resting Sculpture - room 18:

    Derain - Drying Sails - room 19:

    Matisse - Still life in Venetian Red - 1908 - room 19:

    Derain - Pine Trunks - room 21:

    Derain - Saturday - room 21:

    Rue Du Mont Cenis, Montmartre (1914-1916). Utrillo Maurice (1883-1955) room 21:

    Picasso - The Meeting - room 22:

     Picasso - Old Jew and a Son - room 22:

    Picasso - Acrobat on a Ball - room 22:

    Picasso - Woman with a Fan - room 22:

    Emil Filla - The Architect - room 23:

    Fernand Léger, 1881-1955 - Left: An Infant with a Flower, 1953;
    Right: A Bird and a Flower, 1953 - room 23.

    Marc Chagall- Artist and his Fiance' - room 24:

    Marc Chagall- Night Scene - room 24:

    Kandinsky - Blue over Multicolor - room 24:

    Kandinsky, “Angular Structure,” (1930):

    Wassily Kandinsky, Impression III. Concert (1911):

    Renato Gottusso - Calabrian Worker's Sunday - room 24:

    Andre Fougeron - Fishing - room 24:

    Temporary exhibition (July 2015) - Mihály Munkácsy (1844-1900) - Hungarian painter - Milton dictating the Lost Paradise to his Daughters:

    Temporary exhibition - Mihály Munkácsy (1844-1900) - Hungarian painter - Paris Interior:

    Temporary exhibition - Mihály Munkácsy (1844-1900) - Hungarian painter - The Candies Thief:

    Prints and Drawings:

    In 1924 the Graphic Arts department was added to the museum, founded with 20,000 prints which were donated from the Hermitage museum. Today, it contains about 400,000 drawings, illustrated books, engravings, posters, applied graphics and ex-libris prints from all over the world and all periods of art history. Among them are works from great masters including Albrecht Durer (1471-1528), Rembrandt, and creators of Japanese Ukiyo-e woodblock prints like Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) and Hiroshige (1797-1858).

    Peter Paul Rubens, The effigy of the Virgin and Child borne by angels, ca. 1608:

    Private Collections Building:

    Between the late-16th century and the end of the 18th, the Church of St. John the Baptist had occupied this place. Later the plot was acquired by the godfather of Alexander Pushkin's brother Lev. In 1804 work had begun on the construction of a two-storeyed town house at the site. Prior to 1917 it had been the property of various aristocratic families. It had also contained the Society for Art and Literature founded in Moscow in 1888 by Konstantin Stanislavsky, Alexander Fedotov, Fyodor Komissarzhevskii and Fyodor Sologub. Between 1927 and 1932 it had housed the presidium of the Association for Artists of Revolutionary Russia. In 1934 the future of the building was again under threat in view of the construction of the Metro station "Palace of the Soviets" (now Kropotkinskaya station). The building was due for demolition on account of its worn foundations, yet, since the arrangements for re-housing the residents were not in place when the time came to build the underground tunnel, it was decided to leave the house intact. Meanwhile the old foundations were removed and replaced with new ones. In 1988 the building was made over to the Pushkin Museum and in 1990 work began on its reconstruction and restoration which took close on 15 years. In June 2005 the Department of Private Collections was moved to a new building at 8/10 Volkhonka St.

    The ground floor of the new building houses collections of works dating from the 19th and ealy-20th century. This floor also contains works by outstanding Russian artists of the 20th century: Aleksandr. Rodchenko and Varvara Stepanova, Aleksandr Tyshler, A. Weisberg and David Sterenberg in a hall specially designed for the display of individual donations. Four rooms on the first floor are taken up with the unique collection of Russian and foreign paintings and drawings which had belonged to the founder of the Museum – I.S.Zilbershtein.

    Alexander Rodchenko, Self-portrait, (1920):

    Varvara Stepanova, Self-portrait, (1920):

    Aleksandr Rodchenko, Dance: An Objectless Composition (1915):