Tip 4: Italian and Spanish Renaissance and Fine Art.
The Main Attractions:
The New Hermitage: Raphael Loggias - Room 227, The Small Italian Skylight Room - Room 237, The Large Italian Skylight Room - Room 238, The Small Spanish Skylight Room - Room 239, The Spanish Skylight Room or the Spanish Cabinet - Room 240, The Italian Cabinet - Room 230, The Majolica Room - Room 229.
The Great (Old) Hermitage: Giulio Romano, A Pair of Lovers - Room 226, The Veronese Room - Room 222, The Titian Room - Room 221, The Leonardo da Vinci Room - Room 214.
Part of the Italian Renaissance galleries (where we start, now) reside in the eastern wing of the New Hermitage with paintings, sculpture, majolica and tapestry from Italy of the 15th–16th centuries, including Conestabile Madonna and Madonna with Beardless St. Joseph by Raphael. The first floor of the New Hermitage contains three large interior spaces in the center of the museum complex with red walls and lit from above by skylights. These are adorned with 19th-century Russian lapidary works and feature Italian and Spanish canvases of the 16th-18th centuries, including Veronese, Giambattista Pittoni, Tintoretto, Velázquez and Murillo. In the enfilade of smaller rooms alongside the skylight rooms the Italian and Spanish fine art of the 15th-17th centuries, including Michelangelo's Crouching Boy and paintings by El Greco. The other rooms of Italian Renaissance Art are on the first floor of the Old Hermitage and were designed by Andrei Stakenschneider between 1851 and 1860, although the design survives only in some of them. They feature works of Italian Renaissance artists, including Giorgione, Titian, Veronese, as well as Benois Madonna and Madonna Litta attributed to Leonardo da Vinci or his school.
Italian Sculpture - 18-19th centuries - Room 242:
Giovanni Duprè, Cain, Room 242. Giovanni Duprè, 1817 – 1882, was an Italian sculptor, settled in Tuscany, who developed a reputation second only to that of his contemporary Lorenzo Bartolini (see below):
Lorenzo Bartolini, Nymph with a Scorpion, Italy, Between 1846 and 1851.
Lorenzo Bartolini, 1777 – 1850, was an Italian sculptor who mixed his neoclassicism with sentimental piety and naturalistic detail. He drew inspiration from the sculpture of the Florentine Renaissance:
From room 242 continue northward and, immediately, turn right to the long Raphael Loggias - Room 227. The Raphael Loggias in the New Hermitage Museum are copies of the famous gallery created during the 16th century in the Vatican Palace. The gallery known as the Raphael Loggias, was designed by Giacomo Quarenghi and painted by Cristopher Unterberger and his workshop in the 1780s as a replication of the loggia in the Vatican in Rome frescoed by Raphael Sanzio da Urbino (1483-1520), runs along the eastern facade. The vaults of this gallery are decorated with paintings based upon Biblical stories, and the walls are covered with human and animal forms interwoven with flowers and foliage. This decorative ornamentation was found in the ruins of Nero’s Golden House, referred to as grotesques. The Raphael Loggias in the Hermitage reveal the links of 18th century Classicism with Renaissance and Classical art. But that is also where the comparisons end.
Now, we change direction and move westward to a series of three halls lit from the outside. We start with The Small Italian Skylight Room - Room 237. The vaults of the room are richly decorated with gilded mouldings. The room is adorned by the works of 19th-century Russian stone artisans. The 16th- and 17th-century paintings to be seen here are part of the display of Italian art, one of the largest in the Hermitage. Particularly noteworthy in this room are works by Veronese and Tintoretto, and also those of artists of the Bolognese and Roman schools, including Annibale Carracci, Guercino, Guido Reni and Carlo Maratti.
Paolo Veronese, Conversion of Saul, Italy, Circa 1570 - The Small Italian Skylight Room - Room 237. An enormous canvas of chaos and confusion and no obvious subject until you focus on Saul laid low in the composition:
Jacopo Robusti or Tintoretto, Birth of St John the Baptist, Italy, 1550s - The Small Italian Skylight Room - Room 237:
Massimo Stanzione, 1585-1656, Death of Cleopatra, Italy, 1630s - 1640s - The Small Italian Skylight Room - Room 237:
The next (westward) hall is The Large Italian Skylight Room - Room 238. This large room contains a display of 17th- and 18th-century Italian painting of celebrated artists as Canaletto, Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista Crespi and Francesco Guardi. The vaults of the room are decorated with moulded ornament in which Renaissance motifs predominate:
Michele Marieschi (school of Canaletto), Rialto Bridge in Venice, Italy, 1740s - The Large Italian Skylight Room - Room 238:
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, 1696-1770, Coriolanus at the Walls of Rome, Italy, Circa 1730 - The Large Italian Skylight Room - Room 238:
Giuseppe Maria Crespi, 1665-1747, Death of St Joseph, Italy, Circa 1712 - The Large Italian Skylight Room - Room 238:
The collection of Spanish painting occupies two halls on the first floor in the New Hermitage: the Small Spanish Skylight Hall and the Spanish Cabinet (rooms 239-240).
The Small Spanish Skylight Room - Room 239. Designed by Leo von Klenze 1851. You find here Spanish 17th- and 18th-century painting: two paintings by the great Spanish master Velazquez - Luncheon and Portrait of Olivares (1638), as well as works by other celebrated 17th-century artists - Ribera, Zurbaran and Cano, and a large collection of Murillos.
Diego Velazquez, Portrait of Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke Olivares, Spain, 1638 - The Small Spanish Skylight Room - Room 239:
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 1617-1682, Isaac Blessing Jacob, Spain, Circa 1660 - The Small Spanish Skylight Room - Room 239:
Bartolome Esteban Murillo, Jacob's Dream, Spain, Between 1660 and 1665 - The Small Spanish Skylight Room - Room 239:
Move northward from room 239 to The Spanish Skylight Room or the Spanish Cabinet - Room 240. Far smaller room than the former one. Again, Spanish artists of the 15th to early 17th century. Visitors' attention is drawn to one of the masterpieces of the picture gallery - El Greco's painting of The Apostles Peter and Paul and other works by that great Spanish painter:
El Greco, The Apostles Peter and Paul, circa 16th-century - The Spanish Skylight Room - Room 240:
El Greco , St Bernard, Spain, 1579 - The Spanish Skylight Room - Room 240:
Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, Portrait of Diego de Villamayor, Spain, 1605, FANTASTIC PICTURE - The Spanish Skylight Room - Room 240. This vibrant portrait of a 17-year-old courtier in burnished black and gold armour by a much less-well known artist is a remarkably successful study of power and character !
From the Spanish Skylight Room we continue to a long series of inner rooms in the New Hermitage: the majority include Italian Art and the minority of them - Spanish Art. We start with rooms 230 -236, continue to the Majolica Room and finalize with rooms 207-226. We shall show, here, the most notable masterpieces or famous highlights - displayed in these rooms. The sequence of the inner rooms, in this tip - is according to our course of walking. From Room 240 we move eastward, first, to room 236.
Francesco Guardi, 1712-1793, View (Veduta) of the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice, Italy, Between 1765 and 1775 - Italian Art - Room 236:
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo - Maecenas Presenting the Liberal Arts,1743 - Italian Art - Room 236:
Pietro Rotari, Portrait of Countess A.M. Vorontsova, Italy, Between 1756 and 1762 - talian Art - Room 235:
Francesco Solimena, 1657-1747, Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, Italy, Late 1690s - Italian Art - Room 234:
Mattia Preti, Concert, Italy, Circa 1630 - Italian Art - Room 234:
Alessandro Algardi, 1598-1654, Portrait of Olimpia Pamphilj (aristocrat and art-lovers Italian, Roman family), Italy, 1640s - Italian Art - Room 233:
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1598-1680, Constantine the Great, Italy, Circa 1662-1663 - Italian Art - Room 232:
Bernardo Strozzi (Il Cappuccino), 1581-1644, St Secundus and Angel, Italy, Circa 1635-1640 - Italian Art - Room 232:
Andrea Sacchi, 1599-1661, Venus at Rest, Italy - Italian Art - Room 231:
Guido Reni, 1575-1642, St Joseph with Infant Christ in his Arms, Italy, Circa 1635 - Italian Art - Room 231:
The last room and most eastern in this roow of inner rooms with Italian Art - is room 230 - the Italian cabinet. Here, you find one of the most famous highlights of the Itallian Renaissance art: The Crouching Boy by Michelangelo:
Buonarroti Michelangelo, Crouching Boy, Italy, Between 1530 and 1534. Originally the sculpture was intended for the Medici chapel in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence - The Italian Cabinet - Room 230:
Baccio Bandinelli, Faun - The Italian Cabinet - Room 230:
From room 230 we turn left, north, to The Majolica Room - Room 229. This is one of the grand halls of the New Hermitage. Constructed in the mid-19th century to the design of Leo von Klenze for the purpose of displaying the collection of cameos. The interior decoration of this room is based on motifs of Renaissance art. The hall features the collection of Italian art of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Raphael (Raffaello Santi), 1483-1520, Madonna and Child (The Conestabile Madonna) - The Majolica Room - Room 229:
Francesco Xanto Avelli, circa 1487-circa 1542, Tile, The Battle of Achilles and Hector, Italy - The Majolica Room - Room 229:
Francesco Xanto Avelli, circa 1487-circa 1542, Plate. Polyphemus, Galatea and Acis, Italy, 1535 - The Majolica Room - Room 229:
From the Majolica room - we turn right, EAST, the small room number 226. Browse it quickly.
The Workshop of Orazio Fontana, Dish. Minerva and Muses, Italy, Between 1565 and 1570 - room 226:
WE ENTER, NOW THE The Great (Old) Hermitage.
Continue north to room 224 and, later, to room 216.Here, YOU FOND ONE OF THE MOST MONUMENTAL PICTURES IN THE WHOLE HERMITAGE. STUNNING. BREATH-TAKING. Giulio Romano (1499-1546), A Pair of Lovers or The Two Lovers, (Due Amanti), c. 1525. This painting illustrates Giulio Romano's tendency for erotic subject matter. It may show the encounter between Zeus and Alcmene. Alcmene was the mother of Hercules and the wife of Amphitryon, but the night she conceived Hercules and his twin brother Iphicles, Alcmene mated with both Zeus, who had disguised himself as her husband, and Amphitryon. As a result, Zeus was Hercules's father, but Amphitryon was the father of Iphicles. The alarmed dog at the maidservant's feet points to a breach of marital fidelity. The bed's carved decoration of a satyr and nymph may allude to another of Zeus's amorous adventures, when he assumed the guise of a satyr to make love to the nymph Antiope. Giulio Romano was an Italian painter and architect and notably a prominent pupil of Raphael. His stylistic deviations from Renaissance’s Classicism help define the 16th-century style known as Mannerism. This picture stood in Catherine-the-Great bedroom for tens of years. What an inspiration !!!
Room 216 provides a wonderful view over the little Winter (Zimnaya) Canal and the Hermitage Theatre.
The next series of rooms: 217-222 are centered around Venetian art. Turn LEFT, WEST to room 223 (NOT TO room 215 !), pass it quickly and arrive to, the more interesting, The Veronese Room - Room 222.
Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), Mourning of Christ, Pietà - The Veronese Room - Room 222:
Paolo Veronese, Resurrection of Christ, Italy, 1570s - The Veronese Room - Room 222:
The next, westward room is The Titian Room - Room 221. The room is used to display works from the later part of the career of Titian (1488-1576), the great Venetian Renaissance artist. They include Danaë, The Repentant Mary Magdalene and St Sebastian. The Titian Room is one of the courtyard-side suite of rooms in the Old (Large) Hermitage that was decorated by Andrei Stakenschneider in the 1850s.
Titian - Venus in Mirror- Titian Room - Room 221:
Titian - Danae - Titian Room - Room 221:
Titian - Pope Paul III - Titian Room - Room 221:
Titian - Repentant Mary Magdalene- Titian Room - Room 221:
Titian - St. Sebastian - Titian Room - Room 221:
Room 220 is full with Italian painters. Most of the pictures are portraits.
Lorenzo Lotto - Old Man - Room 220:
Lorenzo Lotto - Family Portrait - Room 220:
Room 219 includes, among others, pictures of Titian, Sebastiano del Piombo and Paris Bordone:
Titian, Portrait of Young Lady - room 219:
Titian, The Flight into Egypt, c. 1506-07- room 219 (or room 217):
Paris Bordone, 1500-1571, Portrait of a Lady with a Boy, Italy, Mid-1530s - room 219:
Leandro Bassano, Carrying of the Cross, Italy, Early 1580s - Italian Art - Room 218:
Jacopo Bassano (another Bassano...), 1517-1592, Autumn, Italy, 1577-1578 - Italian Art - Room 218:
Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco), Judith, Italy, 1504 - Italian Art - Room 217:
Room 217 opens to the smallish room 208 - Italian Painting of 13th-15th centuries. (room 206 - see Tip 3).
Simone Martini, circa 1284-1344, Madonna from the Annunciation Scene, Italy, Between 1340 and 1344 - Italian Art - Room 207:
Continue eastward to room 209.
Fra Angelico, 1387-1455, Madonna and Child with Four Аngels, Italy, Early 1420s - Italian Art - Room 209:
Fra Filippo Lippi, circa 1406-1469, Vision of St Augustine, Italy, Circa 1460 - Italian Art - Room 209:
Room 210 is about early Florentine art.
Andrea della Robbia, Boy with a Garland, Italy, Florence, 15th - early 16th century - room 210:
We pass (our face eastward) through rooms 211 and 212.
Perugino, Portrait of a Young Man - Room 213:
Perugino, circa 1450-1523, St Sebastian, Italy, 1493-1494 - Room 213:
We arrive to The Leonardo da Vinci Room - Room 214. The Hermitage holds only two pictures of Leonardo da Vinci - and they are, both, in this room.
The two paintings from Leonardo Da Vinci are probably the biggest attraction of the whole museum. Especially in summer there will be a huge crowd (the above pictures was taken in June !
Leonardo da Vinci. 1452-1519, The Benois Madonna (Madonna and the Child), Italy, 1478-1480 - Italian Art - Room 214:
Leonardo da Vinci. 1452-1519, The Madonna Litta, Italy, Circa 1490 - Italian Art - Room 214:
In the last, most north-eastern room no. 215 - you find pictures of Lenardo da Vinci pupils.
School of Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519, Nude Woman ("Donna Nuda"), Italy - room 215:
Correggio (Antonio Allegri). 1489-1534, Portrait of a Lady, Italy, 1518-1519 - Room 215:
Francesco Melzi. 1493-1570, Flora, Italy, Circa 1520 - Room 215. This portrait by one of Leonardo da Vinci followers is so appealing - that it reminds you, something of, the famous Mona Lisa:
We arrive, again, to Room 216 - where resides the MONUMENTAL picture of Giulio Romano (1499-1546): A Pair of Lovers or The Two Lovers (Due Amanti). In our eyes - one of the most sensational and impressive masterpieces in the Hermitage.
Tip 2: The Small Hermitage: French Art , Art of the Western European Middle Ages, Dutch Art and the Pavilion Hallt:
Main Attractions: Poussin Room - room 279, Lorrain Room - room 280, Room 284 (Antoine Watteau), Room 285 (François Boucher) (Etienne Maurice Falconet), Bernard Palissy - French Porcelains - Room 273, Rooms 255-262, The Pavilion Hall - Room 204.
French Art - rooms 263-281:
Now, we browse the most southern rooms in the central section of the 1st floor - numbered 263-281. Coming from the Great Church (room 271) you might start at room 270 (anti-clockwise) or room 272 (clockwise). In the 18th century increased the popularity of French art among art collectors. This trend was reflected also in the putchases of Catherine the Great. She was responsible for bringing to St. Petersburg of most of the French famous art treasures - found in these rooms. With twelve works by Nicolas Poussin and the same number by Claude Gellee (Lorrain), paintings by the Le Nain brothers, Antoine Watteau, Francois Boucher, Jean-Honore Fragonard, Hubert Robert, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Jean-Baptiste Chardin, the exhibition of French paintings from the 16th to 18th century is one of the highlights of the Hermitage. The most known French painters represented in the Hermitage collection are: Claude Gellée, known as Lorrain (1600-1682), one of the foremost French Classicists of the 17th century (room 280) and the great French Classical artist of the 17th century Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) - room 279.
Evening Landscape - Claude Lorrain (room 280). Claude Lorrain also known as Claude Gellée. C. 1600 – 23 November 1682 was a French painter who spent most of his life in Italy, and is admired for his achievements in landscape painting.
Landscape of River Tiber - Claude Lorrain (room 280):
Italian Landscape - Claude Lorrain (room 280):
Tancred and Erminia - Nicolas Poussin (room 279). Nicolas Poussin - June 1594 – 19 November 1665, was a leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome. His work is characterized by favor of line over color. He worked in Rome for a circle of leading collectors there and elsewhere, except for a short period when Cardinal Richelieu ordered him back to France to serve as First Painter to the King. Most of his works are history paintings of religious or mythological subjects that very often have a large landscape element:
Rest on the Flight into Egypt - Nicolas Poussin (room 279):
An Embarrasing Proposal (1715) - Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) - room 284. Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1684 – 1721, better known as Antoine Watteau, was a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of interest in colour and movement, as seen in the tradition of Correggio and Rubens. Watteau best known subjects were drawn from the world of Italian comedy and ballet:
The Capricious Girl - Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) - room 284:
Coypel, Charles-Antoine - Fury of Achilles - room 284. Charles-Antoine Coypel ,1694 – 1752, was a French painter, art commentator, and playwright. He lived in Paris and was the son of the artist Antoine Coypel and inherited his father’s design and painting duties as First Painter to the King at the French court when his father died in 1722. He became premier Painter to the King and director of the Académie Royale in 1747. He received a number of commissions for paintings for the Palais de Versailles, and worked for Madame de Pompadour, the king’s mistress. Coypel was an excellent tapestry designer. He designed tapestries for the Gobelins manufactory. His most successful tapestries were created from a series illustrating Don Quixote. These illustrations were painted as cartoons for tapestries, and were engraved and published in a deluxe folio in Paris in 1724. Coypel created twenty-eight small paintings for these tapestries over a number of years. Over two hundred pieces of the Don Quixote series were woven between 1714 and 1794. He received a commission to design a series of theatrical scenes for tapestries for the queen of Poland in 1747.Coypel also wrote prose, several comedies, two tragedies, and some poetry:
Apollo and Daphne - Jean-Francois de Troy - Room 284. Jean François de Troy, 1679 - 1752, Rome, was a French Rococo painter and tapestry designer. He was one of a family of painters, being the son of the portrait painter François de Troy (1645–1730), under whom he first studied, and at whose expense he first went to Italy from 1699 to 1706, staying in Rome, but also visiting many north Italian cities:
Pastoral Scene - François Boucher - room 285:
François Boucher - Landscape Near Beauvais - room 285:
Cupid - Etienne Maurice Falconet - room 285:
Bernard Palissy - French Porcelains - Room 273:
Room 273 - French Icons:
Lamentation - Jacques Bellange - room 273:
Portrait of a Young Man - Pierre Dumonstier, 1570-75 - room 273:
Allegorical Portrait of Anna of Austria - Simon Vouet (1590 - 1649) - room 275 or 276:
Hercules Among the Olympians - Simon Vouet (1590 - 1649) - room 275 or 276:
Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple - Eustache Le Sueur - room 275 or 276:
Jacob Burying Laban's Images - Sebastien Bourdon - room 276:
Room 297 - see Tip 1.
Art of the Western European Middle Ages - Rooms 255 -262: These rooms reside in the central part of Floor 1. We are in the Small Hermitage. We move from south to north.
Group Portrait of the Shooting Company of Amsterdam, 1532 - Dirk Jacobsz (1496–1567, was a Dutch Renaissance painter) - Room 262:
Brueghel, Pieter the Younger - Winter Landscape with a River, The Netherlands, 1615-1620 - room 262:
Brueghel, Pieter the Younger - Fair with a Theatrical Presentation,
The Netherlands, First Half of 17th century - room 262:
The Lamentation - Goes, Hugo van der, The Netherlands, Early 16th century - room 261:
From room 261 turn left to the small room no. 260:
We found in room 260 - a quartet of singers:
Return to room 261 and continue north to the LONG hall or room 259:
Figurine of the Sitting Madonna with Child, France, Early of the 14th:
Plaques with Scenes from the Novel of Tristan, France, First half of 14th century:
Cross the smallish room 203 and enter The Pavilion Hall - Room 204. Pavilion Hall, designed by Andrei Stackenschneider in 1858. Andrei Stakenschneider is the most significant Russian architect of the Eclecticism style. In the design of this interior he intermingled architectural elements of Classical Antiquity, Renaissance and the Orient. The Pavilion Hall occupies the first floor of the Northern Pavilion in the Small Hermitage. The hall is adorned with an arcade of columns supporting a graceful gallery. The combination of light marble with gilt stucco ornaments and the brightly shining twenty-eight crystal chandeliers make it particularly impressive. It features the 18th-century golden Peacock Clock by James Cox and a collection of mosaics. The floor of the hall is adorned with a 19th-century imitation of an ancient Roman mosaic:
The Golden Peacock - Pavilion Hall - room 204:
The Neva river from the Pavilion Hall:
From the Pavilion Hall - it is easy to have a glance at the Small Hermitage Garden:
From the Pavilion Hall we move southward to a further series of 3-4 rooms of Western European Middle Ages and Dutch Art: rooms 255 - 258. Later, we move eastward to the New Hermitage and a large group of rooms of Flemish, Dutch and German Art (rooms 206-248).
European Middle Ages - Room 255: - Cranach the Elder - Portrait of a Woman:
European Middle Ages - Room 255: - Cranach the Elder - Venus and Cupid:
Dutch Art - Room 256: Frans hals - Portrait of a Young Man Holding a Glove, Holland, Circa 1650. Frans Hals the Elder c. 1582 – 1666, was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture:
Dutch Art - Room 256: Dirck Hals - Home Concert, The Netherlands, 1623. Dirck Hals, 1591 – 1656, born at Haarlem, was a Dutch painter of festivals and ballroom scenes. He was influenced by his elder brother Frans Hals:
Dutch Art - Room 257: Adriaen van der Werff - Sarah Bringing Hagar to Abraham, Holland, 1696. Adriaen van der Werff, 1659 – 1722, was an Dutch painter of portraits and mythological scenes:
Dutch Art - Room 257: Jan Steen, Idlers, Holland, Circa 1660. Jan Havickszoon Steen, 1626 – 1679, was a Dutch painter of the 17th century (also known as the Dutch Golden Age. His works are known for their psychological insight, sense of humour and abundance of colour:
You may skip room 258. We recommend returning to room 255 or room 205 or even back to the Pavilion Hall - and from there move eastward to the New Hermitage and a large group of rooms of Flemish, Dutch and German Art (rooms 206-248). The first room, there, will be room 206 or the Council Staircase. Skip to Tip 3.